Pari no Amerikajin megavideo tt0043278 Free openload release date






genre: Romance

duration: 114minute

Average Rating: 7,3 / 10 Stars

writed by: Alan Jay Lerner, Alan Jay Lerner

An American in Paris is a movie starring Gene Kelly, Leslie Caron, and Oscar Levant. Three friends struggle to find work in Paris. Things become more complicated when two of them fall in love with the same woman

Vezi aici An American in Paris in romana Detalii ↓ Actorii si actritele Filme similare Filme recomandate Video si Trailere Poze si Walpapere Colectia de filme Titlul original: An American in Paris An American in Paris Traducere film in romana: Un American la Paris Traducere film TMDB: An American in Paris Nota TMDB 6. 9 / 10 Total votanti: 140 Nota IMDB 7. 2 / 10 Total votanti: 24, 607 Regizor: Vincente Minnelli Vezi film online Film Un American la Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - 1951 in romana Film creat de companiile: Loew's, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) Filmul a fost creat de tarile: Descriere Film Un American la Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - 1951 online in romana Un american la Paris este considerat unul dintre cele mai bune 100 de filme din topul Institutului American de Film. Este un musical, o comedie, dar mai ales o poveste de dragoste. Paris. Dupa cel de-al doilea razboi mondial. Jerry Mulligan (Gene Kelly) incearca sa-si descopere vocatia de pictor in orasul tuturor artistilor. De fapt, el are certitudinea propriei valori, nefiind cu nimic vinovat de faptul ca lumea este atat de reticenta si nu doreste deloc sa se imbunatateasca, acceptandu-i opera. Asadar, in asteptarea unei recunoasteri unanime, Jerry are norocul de a fi descoperit de Milo Roberts (Nina Foch. Ea este mostenitoarea unei averi fabuloase, o femeie foarte influenta si mai mult, interesata de Jerry. Ca artist si nu numai. Totul pare ca s-a aranjat foarte bine, numai ca tanarului pictor ii pune capac o senzuala frantuzoaica: Lise Bouvier (Leslie Caron. Ea este insa logodita cu un barbat mai in varsta, iar Jerry va trebui sa o convinga ca dragostea lui este nemuritoare, dupa cum insusi spune. Un american la Paris nu inseamna numai povestea de dragoste ai carei protagonisti sunt Gene Kelly si Leslie Caron. Inseamna si muzica lui George Gershwin si capacatatea lui Gene Kelly de a-si exprima sentimentele prin dans. Pentru scena finala de balet care este de 17 minute filmarile au durat o luna si au avut un ritm foarte sustinut. Leslie Caron, care suferise de malnutritie in timpul celui de-al doilea razboi mondial, a facut eforturi sustinute pentru a tine pasul cu Gene Kelly. Vezi Film Un American la Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - 1951 online subtitrat in romana Poze si video film Toate imaginile si posterele Poza o poti vedea in marime naturala daca apesi pe ea Toate trailerele si video Gene Kelly Leslie Caron Oscar Levant Georges Guétary Filme asemanatoare cu Film Un American la Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - An American in Paris - 1951 Comentarii: Alte denumiri ale filmului in alte limbi: Un americano en París, Argentina, Ein Amerikaner in Paris, Austria, Sinfonia de Paris, Brazil, Ein Amerikaner in Paris, Germany, En amerikaner i Paris, Denmark, Un americano en París, Spain, Pariisin lumoissa, Finland, Un Américain à Paris, France, Ενας Αμερικανός στο Παρίσι, Greece, Amerikanac u Parizu, Croatia, Egy amerikai Párizsban, Hungary, Un americano a Parigi, Italy, Pari no Amerikajin, Japan, En amerikaner i Paris, Norway, Amerykanin w Paryzu, Poland, Um Americano em Paris, Portugal, An American in Paris, Sweden, Amerikanec v Parizu, Slovenia, i, Ukraine, Sinfonía de París, Uruguay, Sinfonía de París, Venezuela, Ein Amerikaner in Paris, West Germany Poster An American in Paris Titlu IMDB An American in Paris Data lansare internationala: 1953-08-07 Locatie filmare: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios - 10202 W. Washington Blvd., Culver City, California, USA.


Download'Pari'no'Amerikajin'4Shared Pari no (2018) English Full Movie Download Pari no watch full online Watch Pari no Online Thehollywoodgossip. [Pari no Amerikajin] Online HD 700p. Japanese Americans 日系アメリカ人(日系米国人) Nikkei Amerikajin (Nikkei Beikokujin) The Japanese American National Museum Total population 1, 411, 188 [1] 2015 United States surveys) Regions with significant populations Hawaii, the West Coast, and urban areas elsewhere. Languages American English and Japanese Religion 32% Unaffiliated, 33% Protestantism, 25% Buddhism, 4% Catholicism, 4% Shinto (2012) 2] 3] Japanese Americans ( 日系アメリカ人 Nikkei Amerikajin. are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century, but since the 2000 census, they have declined in number to constitute the sixth largest Asian American group at around 1. 3 million, including those of mixed-race or mixed-ethnicity. [1] According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272, 528, Hawaii with 185, 502, New York with 37, 780, Washington with 35, 008, Illinois with 17, 542, and Ohio with 16, 995. [4] Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America, and the city of Torrance holds the most dense Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. [5] 6] History Immigration People from Japan began migrating to the U. S. in significant numbers following the political, cultural, and social changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Large numbers went to Hawaii and later the West Coast. In 1907, the " Gentlemen's Agreement " between the governments of Japan and the U. ended immigration of Japanese unskilled workers, but permitted the immigration of businessmen, students and spouses of Japanese immigrants already in the U. S... The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese. The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, and their US-born children to the Nisei Japanese American -generation. The Issei comprised exclusively those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US. This generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age, citizenship, and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries. The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized U. citizenship to "free white persons" which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States (1922) and Korematsu v. United States (1943. The Korematsu case originated the " strict scrutiny " standard, which is applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe. The numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, and is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. Japanese Americans also have the oldest demographic structure of any non-European ethnic group in the US. Internment During World War II, an estimated 120, 000 Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals or citizens residing on the West Coast of the United States were forcibly interned in ten different camps across the western interior of the country. The internments were based on the race or ancestry rather than activities of the interned. Families, including children, were interned together. Decades later, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 officially acknowledged the "fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights" of the internment. [7] Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. [8] Webster's New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined. " Cultural profile Generations The nomenclature for each of their generations who are citizens or long-term residents of countries other than Japan, used by Japanese Americans and other nationals of Japanese descent are explained here; they are formed by combining one of the Japanese numbers corresponding to the generation with the Japanese word for generation ( sei 世. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei, Nisei, and Sansei, which describe the first, second, and third generations of immigrants. The fourth generation is called Yonsei (四世) and the fifth is called Gosei (五世. The term Nikkei (日系) encompasses Japanese immigrants in all countries and of all generations. Generation Summary Issei (一世) The generation of people born in Japan who later immigrated to another country. Nisei (二世) The generation of people born in North America, Latin America, Hawaii, or any country outside Japan either to at least one Issei or one non-immigrant Japanese parent. Sansei (三世) The generation of people born in North America, Latin America, Hawaii, or any country outside Japan to at least one Nisei parent. Yonsei (四世) The generation of people born in North America, Latin America, Hawaii, or any country outside Japan to at least one Sansei parent. Gosei (五世) The generation of people born in North America, Latin America, Hawaii, or any country outside Japan to at least one Yonsei parent. The kanreki (還暦) a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei. Rituals are enactments of shared meanings, norms, and values; and this traditional Japanese rite of passage highlights a collective response among the Nisei to the conventional dilemmas of growing older. [9] Issei and many nisei speak Japanese in addition to English as a second language. In general, later generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese later as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nikkei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language, spoken and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities. citation needed] It is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists (from Japan) Japanese subtexts are provided on place signs, public transportation, and civic facilities. The Hawaii media market has a few locally produced Japanese language newspapers and magazines, although these are on the verge of dying out, due to a lack of interest on the part of the local (Hawaii-born) Japanese population. Stores that cater to the tourist industry often have Japanese-speaking personnel. To show their allegiance to the US, many nisei and sansei intentionally avoided learning Japanese. But as many of the later generations find their identities in both Japan and America or American society broadens its definition of cultural identity, studying Japanese is becoming more popular than it once was. citation needed] Education Japanese American culture places great value on education and culture. Across generations, children are often instilled with a strong desire to enter the rigors of higher education. Because of such widespread ambition among members of the Japanese American community, math and reading scores on the SAT and ACT may often exceed the national averages. Japanese Americans have the largest showing of any ethnic group in nationwide Advanced Placement testing each year. citation needed] A large majority of Japanese Americans obtain post-secondary degrees. Japanese Americans often face the " model minority " stereotype that they are dominant in math- and science-related fields in colleges and universities across the United States. In reality, however, there is an equal distribution of Japanese Americans between the arts and humanities and the sciences. citation needed] Although their numbers have declined slightly in recent years, Japanese Americans are still a prominent presence in Ivy League schools, the top University of California campuses including UC Berkeley and UCLA, and other elite universities. citation needed] The 2000 census reported that 40. 8% of Japanese Americans held a college degree. [10] Schools for Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals File:20140314 A Japanese school opened in Hawaii in 1893 and other Japanese schools for temporary settlers in North America followed. [11] In the years prior to World War II, many second generation Japanese American attended the American school by day and the Japanese school in the evening to keep up their Japanese skill as well as English. Other first generation Japanese American parents were worried that their child might go through the same discrimination when going to school so they gave them the choice to either go back to Japan to be educated, or to stay in America with their parents and study both languages. [12. page needed] Anti-Japanese sentiment during World War I resulted in public efforts to close Japanese-language schools. The 1927 Supreme Court case Farrington v. Tokushige protected the Japanese American community's right to have Japanese language private institutions. During the internment of Japanese Americans in World War II many Japanese schools were closed. After the war many Japanese schools reopened. [13] There are primary school-junior high school Japanese international schools within the United States. Some are classified as nihonjin gakkō or Japanese international schools operated by Japanese associations, 14] and some are classified as Shiritsu zaigai kyōiku shisetsu ( 私立在外教育施設) or overseas branches of Japanese private schools. [15] They are: Seigakuin Atlanta International School, Chicago Futabakai Japanese School, Japanese School of Guam, Nishiyamato Academy of California near Los Angeles, Japanese School of New Jersey, and New York Japanese School. A boarding senior high school, Keio Academy of New York, is near New York City. It is a Shiritsu zaigai kyōiku shisetsu. [15] There are also supplementary Japanese educational institutions ( hoshū jugyō kō) that hold Japanese classes on weekends. They are located in several US cities. [16] The supplementary schools target Japanese nationals and second-generation Japanese Americans living in the United States. There are also Japanese heritage schools for third generation and beyond Japanese Americans. [17] Rachel Endo of Hamline University, 18] the author of "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community. wrote that the heritage schools "generally emphasize learning about Japanese American historical experiences and Japanese culture in more loosely defined terms. 19] Tennessee Meiji Gakuin High School and International Bilingual School were full-time Japanese schools that were formerly in existence. Intermarriage Before the 1960s, the trend of Japanese Americans marrying partners outside their racial or ethnic group was generally low, as well a great many traditional Issei parents encouraged Nisei to marry only within their ethnic/cultural group. Arrangements to purchase and invite picture brides from Japan to relocate and marry Issei or Nisei males was commonplace. citation needed] In California and other western states until the end of World War II, there were attempts to make it illegal for Japanese and other Asian Americans to marry European Americans, but those laws were declared unconstitutional by the U. Supreme Court, like the anti- miscegenation laws which prevented European Americans from marrying African Americans in the 1960s. According to a 1990 statistical survey by the Japan Society of America, the Sansei or third generations have an estimated 20 to 30 percent out-of-group marriage, while the 4th generation or Yonsei approaches nearly 50 percent. During the World War II Internment era, the U. Executive Order 9066 had an inclusion of orphaned infants with "one drop of Japanese blood" as explained in a letter by one official) or the order stated anyone at least one-sixteenth Japanese (descended from any intermarriage) lends credence to the argument that the measures were racially motivated, rather than a military necessity. There were sizable numbers of Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese, Filipino-Japanese, Mexican-Japanese, Native Hawaiian-Japanese and Cherokee-Japanese in California according to the 1940 U. Census who were eligible for internment as "Japanese" to indicate the first stage of widespread intermarriage of Japanese Americans, including those who passed as "white" or half-Asian/European. Japanese Americans practice a wide range of religions, including Mahayana Buddhism ( Jōdo Shinshū, Jōdo-shū, Nichiren, Shingon, and Zen forms being most prominent) their majority faith, Shinto, and Christianity. In many ways, due to the longstanding nature of Buddhist and Shinto practices in Japanese society, many of the cultural values and traditions commonly associated with Japanese tradition have been strongly influenced by these religious forms. A large number of the Japanese American community continue to practice Buddhism in some form, and a number of community traditions and festivals continue to center around Buddhist institutions. For example, one of the most popular community festivals is the annual Obon Festival, which occurs in the summer, and provides an opportunity to reconnect with their customs and traditions and to pass these traditions and customs to the young. These kinds of festivals are mostly popular in communities with large populations of Japanese Americans, such as Southern California and Hawaii. It should be noted however, that a reasonable number of Japanese people both in and out of Japan are secular, as Shinto and Buddhism are most often practiced by rituals such as marriages or funerals, and not through faithful worship, as defines religion for many Americans. Many Japanese Americans practice Christianity. Among mainline denominations the Presbyterians have long been active. The First Japanese Presbyterian Church of San Francisco opened in 1885. [20] There is also the Japanese Evangelical Missionary Society (JEMS) formed in the 1950s. It operates Asian American Christian Fellowships (AACF) programs on university campuses, especially in California. [21] The Japanese language ministries are fondly known as "Nichigo" in Japanese American Christian communities. The newest trend includes Asian American members who do not have a Japanese heritage. [22] Celebrations An important annual festival for Japanese Americans is the Obon Festival, which happens in July or August of each year. Across the country, Japanese Americans gather on fair grounds, churches and large civic parking lots and commemorate the memory of their ancestors and their families through folk dances and food. Carnival booths are usually set up so Japanese American children have the opportunity to play together. Japanese American celebrations tend to be more sectarian in nature and focus on the community-sharing aspects. Major celebrations in the United States Date Name Region January 1 Shōgatsu New Year's Celebration Nationwide February Japanese Heritage Fair Honolulu, HI February to March Cherry Blossom Festival March 3 Hinamatsuri (Girls' Day) Hawaii March Honolulu Festival Hawai ʻ i International Taiko Festival International Cherry Blossom Festival Macon, GA March to April National Cherry Blossom Festival Washington, DC April Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival San Francisco, CA Pasadena Cherry Blossom Festival Pasadena, CA Seattle Cherry Blossom Festival Seattle, WA May 5 Tango no Sekku (Boys' Day) May Shinnyo-En Toro-Nagashi (Memorial Day Floating Lantern Ceremony) June Pan-Pacific Festival Matsuri in Hawai ʻ i July 7 Tanabata (Star Festival) July–August Obon Festival August Nihonmachi Street Fair Nisei Week Los Angeles, CA Politics Japanese Americans have shown strong support for candidates in both political parties. Shortly prior to the 2004 US presidential election, Japanese Americans narrowly favored Democrat John Kerry by a 42% to 38% margin over Republican George W. Bush. [23] In the 2008 US presidential election, the National Asian American Survey found that Japanese American favored Democrat Barack Obama by a 62% to 16% margin over Republican John McCain, while 22% were still undecided. [24] Genetics The distribution of the Y-chromosome among Japanese males is a lot different from the males of neighboring countries, such as in Taiwanese males. The Y chromosome is directly correlated to Asian populations, especially in Japanese Americans. The chromosome addition of Y Alu polymorphic element is only displayed in Japanese American men. People of Japanese descent show the highest frequency of the haplogroup O3a5. Haplogroups are groups of genetic populations that share a common ancestor, paternally or maternally. The frequency of this haplogroup is about 5% higher than its frequency in other Asian groups such as Koreans, Manchus, and other Northeast Asians. The Japanese DNA sequence consists of 24. 2% Korean, 16. 1% Okinawa, 4. 8% Uniquely Japanese, 25. 8% Chinese, 8. 1% Ainu, and 21% Unidentified. With the Ainu, there has been research that that group were descendants of the caucasian group. The Ainu people were the key to the Japanese genetic origins because researchers found an exact DNA match with the Ainu and the Jomon Japanese to conclude the Ainu rooted all the way back to the Jomon. [25] From mainland Japanese people, the MtDNA haplogroup frequencies are most occurring in the D4 haplogroup, with about 33% with the second largest frequency in the B4 haplogroup, containing about 9% and the third largest frequency in the M7a haplogroup, occurring at about 8. The rest of the other haplogroup frequencies are much smaller than D4, with frequencies ranging from about 3-5% consisting of mostly N9a, M8, and M9 haplogroups. Between the different Japanese populations, the Yayoi population has the highest haplogroup frequencies of the D4 haplogroup. The Jomon Japanese group has the highest frequency of the N9b haplogroup. In modern Japanese Americans, the highest haplogroup frequency is in the D4 haplogroup, the same as the Yayoi Japanese population. In Okinawa Japanese populations, the highest frequency of haplogroups is the D haplogroup, with the M7a haplogroup frequency directly behind. Of the Ainu Japanese population, the highest haplogroup frequency occurs in the G haplogroup, with an even distribution of frequency in the M7a and Y haplogroups. Lastly, for mainland Japanese populations, the D haplogroup presents the highest frequency. [26] 27] In Japanese Americans, the biggest components are Chinese, Korean, and Okinawan. People of Japanese descent show two pre-Yayoi ancestral Y chromosome lineages descended from Paleolithic people who had been isolated on the mainland of Japan. Studies of the mitochondrial component of Japanese American genes of haplogroup M12 shows a direct correlation of Japanese haplotypes with Tibetans. Other haplotypes that early descents of Japanese people were thought to be carried into include C-M8, which is another Y-chromosome haplotype. Also going back to the Jomon, that gene is displayed in high frequencies in people of Japanese descent. The estimated percentage of this type of gene in Japanese Americans is about 34. 7. The highest frequencies occur in Okinawans and Hokkaidos. [28] Overall, the genetic makeup of Japanese Americans show very mixed origins of genes, all due to the result of migrations of the Japanese ancestors in the past. Risk for inherited diseases Studies have looked into the risk factors that are more prone to Japanese Americans, specifically in hundreds of family generations of Nisei ( The generation of people born in North America, Latin America, Hawaii, or any country outside Japan either to at least one Issei or one non-immigrant Japanese parent) second-generation pro-bands ( A person serving as the starting point for the genetic study of a family, used in medicine and psychiatry. The risk factors for genetic diseases in Japanese Americans include coronary heart disease and diabetes. One study, called the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study that started in 1994 and went through 2003, involved the pro-bands taking part to test whether the increased risk of diabetes among Japanese Americans is due to the effects of Japanese Americans having a more westernized lifestyle due to the many differences between the United States of America and Japan. One of the main goals of the study was to create an archive of DNA samples which could be used to identify which diseases are more susceptible in Japanese Americans. Concerns with these studies of the risks of inherited diseases in Japanese Americans is that information pertaining to the genetic relationship may not be consistent with the reported biological family information given of Nisei second generation pro-bands. [29] Also, research has been put on concerning apolipoprotein E genotypes; this polymorphism has three alleles ( e2, e3, and *e4)and was determined from research because of its known association with increased cholesterol levels and risk of coronary heart disease in Japanese Americans. Specifically too, the apolipoprotein *e4 allele is linked to Alzheimers disease as well. Also, there is increased coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with a mutation in the cholesterol ester transfer protein gene despite having increased levels of HDL. By definition, HDL are plasma high density lipoproteins that show a genetic relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD. The cholesterol ester transfer protein(CETP) helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins in the human body. It plays a fundamental role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, which is why a mutation in this can lead to coronary heart disease. Studies have shown that the CETP is linked to increased HDL levels. There is a very common pattern of two different cholesterol ester transfer protein gene mutations (D442G, 5. 1% intron 14G:A, 0. 5% found in about 3, 469 Japanese American men. This was based off a program called the Honolulu Heart Program. The mutations correlated with decreased CETP levels ( 35% and increased HDL cholesterol levels ( 10% for D442G. The relative risk of CHD was 1. 43 in men with mutations (P<0. 05) and after research found for CHD risk factors, the relative risk went up to 1. 55 (P=0. 02) after further adjustments for HDL levels, the relative risk went up again to 1. 68 (P=0. 008. Genetic CETP deficiency is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, which is due mainly to increased CHD risks in Japanese American men with the D442G mutation and lipoprotein cholesterol levels between 41 and 60 mg/dl. [30] With research and investigations, the possibility of finding “bad genes” denounces the Japanese Americans and will be associated only with Japanese American ancestry, leading to other issues the Japanese Americans had to deal with in the past such as discrimination and prejudice. [31] Japanese Americans by state This section requires expansion. (June 2013) California In the early 1900s Japanese Americans established fishing communities on Terminal Island and in San Diego. [32] By 1923, there were two thousand Japanese fishermen sailing out of Los Angeles Harbor. [33] By the 1930s, legislation was passed that attempted to limit Japanese fishermen, and due to World War II the boats owned by Japanese Americans were confiscated by the U. Navy. [34] One of the vessels owned by a Japanese American, the Alert, built in 1930, 35] became YP-264 in December 1941, 32] and was finally struck from the Naval Vessel Register in 2014. [36] The city of Torrance in Greater Los Angeles has headquarters of Japanese automakers and offices of other Japanese companies. Because of this many Japanese restaurants and other Japanese cultural offerings are in the city, and Willy Blackmore of L. A. Weekly wrote that Torrance was "essentially Japan's 48th prefecture. 37] Connecticut The Japanese School of New York is located in Greenwich, Connecticut in Greater New York City; it had formerly been located in New York City. Georgia The Seigakuin Atlanta International School is located in Peachtree Corners in Greater Atlanta. Illinois As of 2011 there is a Japanese community in Arlington Heights, near Chicago. Jay Shimotake, the president of the Mid America Japanese Club, an organization located in Arlington Heights, said "Arlington Heights is a very convenient location, and Japanese people in the business environment know it's a nice location surrounding O'Hare airport. 38] The Chicago Futabakai Japanese School is located in Arlington Heights. The Mitsuwa Marketplace, a shopping center owned by Japanese, opened around 1981. Many Japanese companies have their US headquarters in nearby Hoffman Estates and Schaumburg. [38] Michigan As of April 2013, the largest Japanese national population in Michigan is in Novi, with 2, 666 Japanese residents, and the next largest populations are respectively in Ann Arbor, West Bloomfield Township, Farmington Hills, and Battle Creek. The state has 481 Japanese employment facilities providing 35, 554 local jobs. 391 of them are in Southeast Michigan, providing 20, 816 jobs, and the 90 in other regions in the state provide 14, 738 jobs. The Japanese Direct Investment Survey of the Consulate-General of Japan, Detroit stated that over 2, 208 more Japanese residents were employed in the State of Michigan as of October 1, 2012, than had been in 2011. [39] New Jersey As of March 2011 about 2, 500 Japanese Americans combined live in Edgewater and Fort Lee; this is the largest concentration of Japanese Americans in the state. [40] The New Jersey Japanese School is located in Oakland. Virginia There are about 5, 500 Japanese Americans in Northern Virginia, representing the majority of Japanese Americans in the state and the multi-state Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. A small, but relatively high number of Japanese Americans can be found areas surrounding the University of Virginia and Virginia Tech. Neighborhoods and communities The West Coast Hawaii: See also: Japanese in Hawaii California: Southern California: Los Angeles, includes the Little Tokyo section Anaheim and Orange County [41] Cerritos, Fullerton and adjacent cities Fontana in the Inland Empire Gardena in Los Angeles' South Bay area Long Beach, California – historic Japanese fisheries presence in Terminal Island Pasadena in the Los Angeles' San Gabriel Valley Palm Desert, the Japanese also developed the year-round agricultural industries in the Coachella Valley and Imperial Valley Sawtelle, California, in West Los Angeles Torrance in Los Angeles' South Bay area Ventura County Central Valley, California region: Bakersfield / Kern County. Fresno, 5% of county residents have Japanese ancestry Merced Stockton Butte County Sutter County San Francisco Bay Area, the main concentration of Nisei and Sansei in the 20th century: Alameda County, concentrated and historic populations in the cities of Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Oakland, and Hayward Contra Costa County, concentrated in Walnut Creek San Mateo County, especially Daly City and Pacifica San Jose, has one of the three remaining officially recognized Japantowns in North America Santa Clara County, concentrated in Cupertino, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, and Sunnyvale San Francisco, notably in the Japantown district, the largest Japanese community in North America [42] Santa Cruz County Monterey County, especially Salinas, California Sacramento and the neighborhoods of Florin and Walnut Grove San Diego area: La Jolla Bonsall, east of Oceanside Japanese community center in Vista in North County, one of two of its kind in Southern California San Luis Obispo Santa Barbara Washington State: Seattle area Bellevue Redmond Tacoma Puget Sound region (San Juan Islands) have Japanese fisheries for over a century Skagit Valley of Washington Yakima Valley, Washington Chehalis Valley of Washington Oregon: Portland and surrounding area Willamette Valley Idaho: Boise Area Meridian Nampa Caldwell Arizona: Phoenix Area, notably a section of Grand Avenue in Northwest Phoenix, and Maryvale Las Vegas Area, with a reference of Japanese farmers on Bonzai Slough, Arizona near Needles, California Southern Arizona, part of the "exclusion area" for Japanese internment during World War II along with the Pacific coast states Yuma County, Arizona Outside the West Coast On the East Coast of the United States, the New York metropolitan area has the highest number of Japanese Americans, followed by the Washington metropolitan area. [43] Arlington, Virginia and Alexandria, Virginia (the Northern Virginia region) Bergen County, New Jersey Boise, Idaho Boone County, Kentucky Boston, Massachusetts Cambridge, Massachusetts Chicago, Illinois and suburbs: Arlington Heights Buffalo Grove Evanston Elk Grove Heights and nearby Elk Grove Village Kane County Naperville Schaumburg Skokie Wilmette Denver, Colorado, note Sakura Square Gallup, New Mexico, in World War II the city fought to prevent the internment of its 800 Japanese residents Grand Prairie, Texas (the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex area) Greeley, Colorado New York City, New York, according to the Japanese Embassy of the USA, over 100, 000 persons of Japanese ancestry live in the NYC metro area, including South Shore (Long Island) and Hudson Valley; Fairfield County, Connecticut and Northern New Jersey Columbus, Ohio Novi, Michigan Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with the suburbs of Chester County Pueblo, Colorado Salem, New Jersey and Cherry Hill, New Jersey (see Delaware Valley) Seabrook Farms, New Jersey [44] Salt Lake City, Utah Notable people After the Territory of Hawai ʻ i 's statehood in 1959, Japanese American political empowerment took a step forward with the election of Daniel K. Inouye to Congress. Spark Matsunaga was elected to the U. House of Representatives in 1963, and in 1965 Patsy Mink became the first Asian American woman elected to the United States Congress. Inouye, Matsunaga, and Mink's success led to the gradual acceptance of Japanese American leadership on the national stage, culminating in the appointments of Eric Shinseki and Norman Y. Mineta, the first Japanese American military chief of staff and federal cabinet secretary, respectively. Japanese American members of the United States House of Representatives have included Daniel K. Inouye, Spark Matsunaga, Patsy Mink, Norman Mineta, Bob Matsui, Pat Saiki, Mike Honda, Doris Matsui, Mazie Hirono, Mark Takano, and Mark Takai. Japanese American members of the United States Senate have included Daniel K. Inouye, Samuel I. Hayakawa, Spark Matsunaga, and Mazie Hirono. In 2010, Inouye was sworn in as President Pro Tempore making him the highest-ranking Asian-American politician in American history. George Ariyoshi served as the Governor of Hawaiʻi from 1974 to 1986. He was the first American of Asian descent to be elected governor of a state of the United States. David Ige is the current governor of Hawaii and has served in that office since 2014. Science and technology Yoichiro Nambu, the 2008 Nobel Laureate in Physics Many Japanese Americans have also gained prominence in science and technology. In 1979, biochemist Harvey Itano became the first Japanese American elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences. Charles J. Pedersen won the 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his methods of synthesizing crown ethers. Yoichiro Nambu won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum chromodynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking. Shuji Nakamura won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes. Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist specializing in string field theory, and a well-known science popularizer. Ellison Onizuka became the first Asian American astronaut and was the mission specialist aboard Challenger at the time of its explosion. Bell M. Shimada was a notable fisheries scientist of the 1950s after whom the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research ship NOAAS Bell M. Shimada (R 227) and the Shimada Seamount in the Pacific Ocean were named. [45] 46] Art and literature In the arts, Minoru Yamasaki was the architect of the World Trade Center. Artist Sueo Serisawa helped establish the California Impressionist style of painting. Other influential Japanese American artists include Chiura Obata, Isamu Noguchi, Kenjiro Nomura, George Tsutakawa, George Nakashima, and Hideo Noda. Japanese American recipients of the American Book Award include Milton Murayama, Ronald Phillip Tanaka, Miné Okubo, Keiho Soga, Taisanboku Mori, Sojin Takei, Muin Ozaki, Toshio Mori, William Minoru Hohri, Karen Tei Yamashita, Sheila Hamanaka, Lawson Fusao Inada, Ronald Takaki, Kimiko Hahn, Lois-Ann Yamanaka, Ruth Ozeki, Hiroshi Kashiwagi, and Yuko Taniguchi. Hisaye Yamamoto received an American Book Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1986. Cynthia Kadohata won the Newbery Medal in 2005. Poet laureate of San Francisco Janice Mirikitani has published three volumes of poems. Lawson Fusao Inada was named poet laureate of the state of Oregon. Michi Weglyn and Ronald Takaki received Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards in 1977 and 1994 respectively. Tomie Arai 's work is part of permanent collection of Museum of Modern Art, Library of Congress, and the Museum of Chinese in the Americas. Music Classical violinist Midori Gotō is a recipient of the prestigious Avery Fisher Prize, while world-renowned violinist Anne Akiko Meyers received an Avery Fisher career grant in 1993. Juno Award -nominated classical violinist Hidetaro Suzuki was the concertmaster of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra from 1978 to 2005. Other notable Japanese American musicians include singer, actress and Broadway star Pat Suzuki; rapper Mike Shinoda of Linkin Park and Fort Minor; rapper Kikuo Nishi aka "KeyKool" of The Visionaries; Hiro Yamamoto, original bassist of Soundgarden; ukulele player Jake Shimabukuro; guitarist James Iha of The Smashing Pumpkins fame; singer-songwriter Rachael Yamagata; bilingual singer-songwriter Emi Meyer; and Trivium lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Matt Heafy. Marc Okubo, guitarist of Veil of Maya, is of Japanese descent. Singer-songwriter and composer Mari Iijima is a Japanese expat currently living in the United States. J-Pop singers Hikaru Utada and Joe Inoue were both born in the United States but gained their fame in Japan. Sports Japanese Americans first made an impact in Olympic sports in the late 1940s and in the 1950s. Harold Sakata won a weightlifting silver medal in the 1948 Olympics, while Japanese Americans Tommy Kono (weightlifting) Yoshinobu Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke) and Ford Konno (1500-meter freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics. Konno won another gold and silver swimming medal at the same Olympics and added a silver medal in 1956, while Kono set another Olympic weightlifting record in 1956. Also at the 1952 Olympics, Evelyn Kawamoto won two bronze medals in swimming. Several decades later, Eric Sato won gold (1988) and bronze (1992) medals in volleyball, while his sister Liane Sato won bronze in the same sport in 1992. Bryan Clay (hapa) won the decathlon gold medal in the 2008 Olympics, the silver medal in the 2004 Olympics, and was the sport's 2005 world champion. Apolo Anton Ohno (hapa) won eight Olympic medals in short-track speed skating (two gold) in 2002, 2006, and 2010, as well as a world cup championship. Brothers Kawika and Erik Shoji won bronze medals in volleyball in 2016. In figure skating, Kristi Yamaguchi, a fourth-generation Japanese American, won three national championship titles (one in singles, two in pairs) two world titles, and the 1992 Olympic Gold medal. Rena Inoue, a Japanese immigrant to America who later became a U. citizen, competed at the 2006 Olympics in pair skating for the United States. Kyoko Ina, who was born in Japan, but raised in the United States, competed for the United States in singles and pairs, and was a multiple national champion and an Olympian with two different partners. Mirai Nagasu won the 2008 U. Figure Skating Championships at the age of 14 and became the second youngest woman to ever win that title. In distance running, Miki (Michiko) Gorman won the Boston and New York City marathons twice in the 1970s. A former American record holder at the distance, she is the only woman to win both races twice, and is the only woman to win both marathons in the same year. In professional sports, Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season, when he played for the New York Knicks. Misaka also played a key role in Utah 's NCAA and NIT basketball championships in 1944 and 1947. Wally Kaname Yonamine was a professional running back for the San Francisco 49ers in 1947. Rex Walters, whose mother was Japanese, played in the NBA from 1993 to 2000. Lindsey Yamasaki was the first Asian American to play in the WNBA and finished off her NCAA career with the third-most career 3-pointers at Stanford University. Hikaru Nakamura became the youngest American ever to earn the titles of National Master (age 10) and International Grandmaster (age 15) in chess. In 2004, at the age of 16, he won the U. Chess Championship for the first time. He later won two other times. Entertainment and media 1957 Academy Award winner Miyoshi Umeki Miyoshi Umeki won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1957. Actors Sessue Hayakawa, Mako Iwamatsu, and Pat Morita were nominated for Academy Awards in 1957, 1966, and 1984 respectively. Chris Tashima won the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film in 1997. Jack Soo, born Goro Suzuki. Valentine's Day and Barney Miller) George Takei ( Star Trek fame) and Pat Morita ( Happy Days and The Karate Kid) helped pioneer acting roles for Asian Americans while playing secondary roles on the small screen during the 1960s and 1970s. In 1976, Morita also starred in Mr. T and Tina, the first American sitcom centered on a person of Asian descent. Keiko Yoshida appeared on the TV show ZOOM on PBS Kids. Gregg Araki (director of independent films) is also Japanese American. Shin Koyamada had a leading role in the Warner Bros. epic movie The Last Samurai and Disney Channel movie franchise Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior and TV series Disney Channel Games. Masi Oka played a prominent role in the NBC series Heroes, Grant Imahara appeared on the Discovery Channel series MythBusters and Derek Mio appeared in the NBC series Day One. Japanese Americans now anchor TV newscasts in markets all over the country. Notable anchors include Tritia Toyota, Adele Arakawa, David Ono, Kent Ninomiya, Lori Matsukawa, and Rob Fukuzaki. [47] Works about Japanese Americans In 2010 TBS produced a five-part, ten-hour fictional Japanese language miniseries, Japanese Americans. This featured many of the major events and themes of the Issei and Nisei experience, including emigration, racism, picture brides, farming, pressure due to the China and Pacific wars, internment, a key character who serves in the 442nd, and the ongoing redefinition in identity of what it means to be Japanese and American. [48] See also Chicago Shimpo Day of Remembrance (Japanese Americans) Japanese American Citizens League Japanese American National Library Japanese American National Museum Japanese American service in World War II 442nd Infantry Regiment 100th Infantry Battalion Military Intelligence Service List of Japanese American Servicemen and Servicewomen in World War II Japanese Community Youth Council (San Francisco) Japanese in New York City Japanese Brazilians Japanese Peruvians Japanese Filipinos Japanese Canadians Japanese British Japanese Mexicans Model minority Nisei Baseball Research Project Pacific Movement of the Eastern World References ↑ 1. 0 1. 1 "ASIAN ALONE OR IN ANY COMBINATION BY SELECTED GROUPS: 2015. U. Census Bureau. Retrieved 15 October 2015. ↑ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. July 19, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2015. ↑ "Japanese Americans - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS. American FactFinder - Results. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ "Redirect. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ [1] ↑ "Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. ↑ ↑ Doi, Mary L. "A Transformation of Ritual: The Nisei 60th Birthday. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. Vol. 6, No. 2 (April, 1991. ↑ Le, Cuong. "Socioeconomic Statistics & Semographics. Retrieved 2012-04-17. ↑ Endo, R. Hamline University. Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community. Bilingual Research Journal, 2013, Vol. 36(3) p. 278-294. CITED: p. 279. ↑ Ronald T, Takaki (1994. Issei and Nisei: The Settling of Japanese America. New York: Chelsea House. 280. ↑ " 日本人学校及び補習授業校の児童生徒在籍数等 (平成14年4月15日現在). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved on March 4, 2015. Includes New York, New Jersey, Chicago, and Guam ↑ 15. 0 15. 1 " 私立在外教育施設一覧. Retrieved on March 1, 2015. ↑ " 北米の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在). Archive) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved on May 5, 2014. ↑ Endo, R. 281. ↑ " Endo Presents and Leads at Conference. Archive. Hamline University. April 20, 2012. Retrieved on March 4, 2015. ↑ Endo, R. 282. ↑ Brian Niiya (1993. Japanese American History: An A-To-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present. VNR AG. p. 28. ↑ Hans Joachim Hillerbrand (2004. The Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Taylor & Francis. p. 197. ↑ Robert A. Orsi (1999. Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape. Indiana UP. p. 299. ↑ Lobe, Jim (September 16, 2004. Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry. AsiaTimes. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011 ↑ Wong, Junn, Lee, Ramakrishnan, Janelle, Jane, Taeku, S. Karthick. "Race-Based Considerations and the Obama Vote" PDF. 2008 National Asian American Survey. ↑ sdfsdflgggdl (2009-01-31) Looking for the Genetic Roots of the Japanese(2/5) retrieved 2016-12-05 ↑ "Making sense of DNA data and the origins of the Japanese. Heritage of Japan. 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2016-12-05. ↑ "Genetic structure of the Japanese and the formation of the Ainu population" PDF. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ "Jomon Genes Using DNA, researchers probe the genetic origins of modern Japanese. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ "Genetics of the Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Americans - Full Text View. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' a nil value. ↑ 32. 0 32. 1 Felando, August; Medina, Harold (Winter 2012. The Origins of California' High-Seas Tuna Fleet" PDF. Journal of San Diego History. San Diego History Center. 58 (1. Retrieved 6 April 2015. ↑ Western Canner and Packer. Miller Freeman Publications of California. 1922. p. 36. ↑ Andrew F. Smith (2012. American Tuna: The Rise and Fall of an Improbable Food. University of California Press. pp. 63–69. ISBN   978-0-520-26184-6. ↑ "San Diego Marine Construction, San Diego CA. Shipbuilding History. 27 June 2014. ↑ Gary P. Priolo (14 February 2014. YP-264. NavSource Naval History. ↑ Blackmore, Willy. Top 10: Japanese Noodles Shops in Torrance. L. Weekly. Retrieved on May 10, 2013. ↑ 38. 0 38. 1 Selvam, Ashok. Asian population booming in suburbs. Daily Herald ( Arlington Heights, Illinois. March 6, 2011. Retrieved on June 19, 2013. ↑ Stone, Cal (April 11, 2013. State's Japanese employees increasing. Observer & Eccentric. Detroit. Archived from the original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2013. ↑ Stirling, Stephen. Japanese Americans in Fort Lee, Edgewater describe frantic calls to loved ones in quake's wake. The Star-Ledger. Friday, March 11, 2011. Updated Saturday, March 12, 2011. Retrieved on June 19, 2013. ↑ June Casagrande (December 2004. Holiday Heritage. Orange Coast Magazine. 30 (12) 174–176. ↑ "Archived copy. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-10. ↑ "D. C. region's Asian population is up 60 percent since 2000, census data show. The Washington Post. ↑ Niiya, Brian (1993. Japanese American History. Japanese American National Museum (Los Angeles, Calif. VNR AG. p. 307. ISBN   0816026807. ↑ Bell Masayuki Shimada (1922-1958) ↑ "NOAA Honors Nisei with Launch of Fisheries Vessel 'Bell M. Shimada. Japanese American Veterans Association, December 2008, Volume 58, Issue 11. ↑. male Japanese-American TV anchor in Los Angeles local TV News. Retrieved 2017-02-07. ↑ "Northern California Premiere of '99 Years of Love. Rafu Shimpo. April 12, 2011 Further reading "Present-Day Immigration with Special Reference to the Japanese. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Jan 1921) pp. 1–232 online 24 articles by experts, mostly about California Azuma, Eiichiro. A History of Oregon's Issei, 1880-1952. Oregon Historical Quarterly. Oregon Historical Society. 94, No. 4, Winter, 1993/1994., pp. 315–367. Available on JStor. DeWan, George. Learning How To Stay Japanese In America. Newsday. January 6, 1990. PART 11, Start page NOPGCIT. Hosokawa, Bill. Nisei, the Quiet Americans (1969. Inouye, Karen M., “Changing History: Competing Notions of Japanese American Experience, 1942–2006” (PhD dissertation Brown University, 2008. Dissertation Abstracts International No. DA3318331. Jacobson, Matthew Frye. (2000. Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876–1917. Hill and Wang, ISBN 978-0-8090-1628-0 Kase, Toyoshi. "Nisei Samurai: Culture and Agency in Three Japanese American Lives. PhD dissertation 2005. online Kikumura-Yano, Akemi, ed. "Encyclopedia of Japanese Descendants in the Americas. Walnut Creek, CA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002. Lai, Eric, and Dennis Arguelles, eds. "The New Face of Asian Pacific America: Numbers, Diversity, and Change in the 21st century. San Francisco, CA: Asian Week, 2003. Miyakawa, Tetsuo Scott. East across the Pacific: historical & sociological studies of Japanese immigration & assimilation (ABC-CLIO, 1972. Moulin, Pierre. (1993. Samurais in Bruyeres – People of France and Japanese Americans: Incredible story Hawaii CPL Editions. ISBN 2-9599984-0-5 Moulin, Pierre. (2007. Dachau, Holocaust and US Samurais – Nisei Soldiers first in Dachau Authorhouse Editions. ISBN 978-1-4259-3801-7 Thernstrom, Stephan; Ann Orlov; Oscar Handlin (1980. Japanese. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (2 ed. Harvard University Press. pp. 561–562. ISBN   0-674-37512-2. Tsuchiya, Tomoko, “Interracial Marriages between American Soldiers and Japanese Women at the Beginning of the Cold War, ” Journal of American and Canadian Studies (Tokyo) no. 29, 2011) 59–84 "United States Census 2000. United States Census Bureau. April 2000. Retrieved 2007-03-16. In Hawaii Asato, Noriko (September 2005. Teaching Mikadoism: The Attack on Japanese Language Schools in Hawaii, California, and Washington, 1919-1927. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. Kono, Hideto; Sinoto, Kazuko (2000. Observations of the first Japanese to Land in Hawai'i" PDF. The Hawaiian Journal of History. 34: 49&ndash, 62. Kawakami, Barbara F. Japanese immigrant clothing in Hawaii, 1885-1941 (University of Hawaii Press, 1995. Morgan, William. Pacific Gibraltar: U. -Japanese Rivalry over the Annexation of Hawai'i, 1885-1898 (Naval Institute Press, 2011. Morimoto, Toyotomi (1997. Japanese Americans and Cultural Continuity: Maintaining Language through Heritage. Routledge. Nordyke, Eleanor C., and Y. Scott Matsumoto. "Japanese in Hawaii: a Historical and Demographic Perspective. 1977. online Takagi, Mariko (1987. Moral Education in Pre-War Japanese Language Schools in Hawaii. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to [ commons:Category. property:P373} Japanese Americans. "Japanese Americans. Archive) State of California. Embassy of Japan in Washington, DC Japanese Cultural Center of Hawaii Japanese Cultural & Community Center of Northern California Japanese American Community and Cultural Center of Southern California Japanese American Historical Society Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project Japanese American Museum of San Jose, California Japanese American Network [ permanent dead link] Japanese-American's own companies in USA Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives Online Archive of the Japanese American Relocation during World War II Photo Exhibit of Japanese American community in Florida Nikkei Federation Discover Nikkei Summary of a panel discussion on changing Japanese American identities The War: Fighting for Democracy: Japanese Americans “The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice”, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan U. Government interned Japanese from Latin America Short radio episode Baseball from "Lil' Yokohama" by Toshio Mori, 1941. California Legacy Project. American Life in the 20th Century in Washington State - University of Washington Digital Collections v t e Asian Americans 1, 2 Central Asian 3, 4 Mongolian Uzbek Map showing the United States in blue, and the nations where Asian Americans originate from in shades of orange East Asian Chinese Hong Kong Taiwanese Tibetan 5 Japanese Korean South Asian 3, 6 Bangladeshi Bhutanese Indian Indo-Caribbean Bengali Punjabi Tamil Nepalese Pakistani Baloch Pashtun Sri Lankan Southeast Asian Burmese Cambodian Filipino Hmong Indonesian Laotian Malaysian Mien Singaporean Thai Vietnamese Other Afro-Asian Amerasian Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans Eurasian Multiracial American Punjabi Mexican General Military Topics Arts and Entertainment Demographics Stereotypes Buddhists Christians Catholics Protestants, etc. Hindus Jainism Muslims Sikhs Notes 1 The U. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. [2] 3] 2 The United States Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951, when Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans. [4] 3 The U. Census Bureau considers Afghanistan a South Asian country, but does not classify Afghan Americans as Asian, 5] but as Middle Eastern American. [6] 4 The U. Census Bureau considers Mongolians and Uzbeks as Central Asians, 7] but a specific Central Asian American group similar to Middle Eastern American does not yet exist. [8] 5 The U. Census Bureau reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan American" as "Chinese American. 9] 6 Bengali Americans may be classified as Bangladeshi or Indian. [10] Punjabi Americans may be classified as Indian or Pakistani. [11] Tamil Americans may be classified as Indian or Sri Lankan.

You can use * to search for partial matches. Logical Operator Operator Open Access This article is freely available re-usable Article A View of the CP/DP- non)parallelism from the Cartographic Perspective Département de Linguistique, University of Geneva, 2 rue de Candolle, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland Academic Editor: Usha Lakshmanan Received: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017 Abstract: The aim of this paper is to reconsider some aspects of the so-called clause/noun-phrase (non- parallelism (Abney 1987 and much subsequent work. The question that arises is to find out what is common and what is different between the clause as a Complementizer Phrase (CP) structure and the noun as a Determiner Phrase (DP) structure in terms of structure and derivation. An example of structural parallelism lies in the division of the clause and the noun phrase into three domains: i) the Nachfeld (right periphery) which is the thematic domain; ii) the Mittelfeld (midfield) which is the inflection, agreement, Case and modification domain and (iii) the Vorfeld (left periphery) which is the discourse- and operator-related domain. However, we will show following Giusti (2002, 2006) Payne (1993) Bruening (2009) Cinque (2011) Laenzlinger (2011, 2015) among others that the inner structure of the Vorfeld and of the Mittelfeld of the clause is not strictly parallel to that of the noun phrase. Although derivational parallelism also lies in the possible types of movement occurring in the CP and DP domains (short head/X-movement, simple XP-movement, remnant XP-movement and pied-piping XP-movement) we will see that there is non-parallelism in the application of these sorts of movement within the clause and the noun phrase. In addition, we will test the respective orders among adverbs/adjectives, DP/Prepositional Phrase (PP) arguments and DP/PP-adjuncts in the Mittelfeld of the clause/noun phrase and show that Cinques (2013) left–right asymmetry holds crosslinguistically for the possible neutral order (without focus effects) in post-verbal/nominal positions with respect to the prenominal/preverbal base order and its impossible reverse order. Keywords: Generative Grammar; cartography; noun phrase/clause- non)parallelism; types of movement; left–right asymmetry; head-final vs. head initial languages 1. Introduction Since the very beginning of Generative Grammar the parallelism between the deverbal nominal construction the enemys recent destruction of the city and the clause The enemy recently destroyed the city has been questioned. Lees proposes that such derived nominals are the result of transformational rules that apply in syntax [ 1. Chomsky argues against this syntactic approach and assumes that such constructions are derived through lexical rules within the framework of what will be called the Lexicalist Hypothesis [ 2. The structural parallelism between the noun phrase (NP) and the clause has emerged more strikingly from Abneys [ 3] Determiner Phrase (DP) hypothesis and has been further developed and discussed in much subsequent work (Cinque [ 4] Giusti [ 5, 6, 7] Payne [ 8] Bruening [ 9] Laenzlinger [ 10, 11] among others; see also Bernstein [ 12] for an overview. 1 The aim of this paper is to revisit some properties related to the so-called clause/noun phrase parallelism. The question that arises is to find out what is common and what is different between the clause as a Complementizer Phrase (CP) structure and the noun as a DP-structure in terms of structure and derivation. 2 At first sight one case of structural parallelism lies in the division of the clause and the noun phrase into three domains (Grohmann [ 16] Laenzlinger [ 10] Wiltschko [ 17. 1. These three domains (DP/CP, NumP/TP and NP/VP) are constituted of multilayered split-structures. The Nachfeld is the thematic domain where the arguments merge and their θ-role is assigned/valued (Laenzlinger [ 10] Larson [ 18] and Chomsky [ 19] among others. The Mittelfeld (or midfield) is the inflection, agreement and Case domain (Pollock [ 20] Belletti [ 21] Cinque [ 4, 22. It is also the domain where modifiers externally merge (adjectives and adverbs, see Cinque [ 22, 23] Laenzlinger [ 10, 11, 24. The Vorfeld is the discourse-related, referential and quantificational domain (Laenzlinger [ 10] Rizzi [ 25] Rizzi and Bocci [ 26] Aboh [ 27. However, it will be demonstrated that the inner structure of the left periphery and of the midfield of the clause is not strictly parallel to that of the noun phrase (Payne [ 8] Bruening [ 9. As will be shown in this paper, there is also derivational parallelism in the possible types of movement occurring in the CP and DP structures: short X-movement, simple XP-movement, remnant XP-movement and pied-piping XP-movement. Nevertheless, we will see that there is non-parallelism in the application of these sorts of movement within the clause and the noun phrase. To be more precise, in this article we will study the order among adverbs/adjectives, DP/Prepositional Phrase (PP) arguments and DP/PP-adjuncts in the Mittelfeld and the Vorfeld of the clause/noun phrase and test if Cinques left–right asymmetry [ 28] see (2) below) holds for the possible neutral order (without focus effects) in post-verbal/nominal positions (2c) and (2d) with respect to the base order in (2a) and the impossible reverse order in (2b. 2. Left–right asymmetry German V-final /Tatar/Japanese a. (x) y z V/N (base) b. *z y (x) V/N German V2 /English/Romance c. V/N (x) y z d. V/N z y (x) The paper is organized as follows. After the introduction Section 2 deals with the structure of the left periphery for the clause ( Section 2. 1) and the noun phrase ( Section 2. 2. We will present arguments in favor of a split-CP/DP structure on the basis of multiple complementizer and determiner occurrences, fronting of arguments and adjuncts for topicalization, focalization and other informational prominence effects. Section 2. 1 is concerned with the Nachfeld involving a vP shell structure for the clause and its corresponding nP shell for the noun phrase and their left periphery. The arguments merge in the thematic domain according to the Universal Thematic Hierarchy. Immediately above vP/nP, there are discourse-related positions (e. g., a focus position. In Section 3 the midfield of the clause ( Section 3. 1) and of the noun phrase ( Section 3. 2) is described and analyzed comparatively in some languages of different families. The relevant constituents whose respective ordering is studied are adjectives/adverbs, DP/PP-adjuncts and DP/PP-arguments. We will show that Cinques left–right asymmetry holds for several languages according to their V/N-initial and V/N-final configurations. Section 4 contains the conclusion. 2. The Rich Structure of the Left Periphery 2. 1. The Clause (CP) Since Rizzi [ 25] the CP layer has been assigned a Force-Finiteness articulation. The cartography of the split-CP structure is given in (3) following Rizzi [ 25, 29, 30] and Rizzi and Bocci [ 26. 3. Force > Top. Int > Top*> Foc > Mod. Top. QP embed > Fin > Subj In French the arguments can move to Topic Phrase (TopP) recursively in clitic-left dislocation) as illustrated below in (4a, c and d. Movement to Focus Projection (FocP as a single projection) is restricted to adjuncts in French contrary to Italian, as shown in (4b–c. 3 4. a. TopP De ce livre. SubjP je sais que tu en parleras] About this book, I know that you of-it talk- fut ‘About this book, I know you will talk. b. FocP DEMAIN. SubjP nous irons à la plage, pas aujourdhui] Tomorrow- foc we go- fut to the beach, not today ‘TOMORROW we will go to the beach, not today. c. FocP DEMAIN. TopP à la plage, nous y irons, pas aujourdhui] Tomorrow- foc to the beach we there go- fut, not today ‘TOMORROW to the beach we will go, not today. d. TopP A la plage [ FocP DEMAIN, nous y irons, pas aujourdhui] To the beach tomorrow- foc we there go- fut, not today ‘To the beach TOMORROW we will go, not today. As argued by Rizzi [ 30] fronted adverbs move to Mod(if)P (modifier projection. Crossing another modifier results in a Relativized Minimality effect, as shown in (5) with the adverb probably blocking movement of lentement. 4 5. Lentement, ils se sont ( probablement) tous dirigés vers la sortie Slowly they Pron-REFL are ( probably) all move toward the exit ‘Slowly, they ( probably) all move to the exit. The data in (6) indicate that PP-adjuncts target a Top projection rather than a Mod(if) projection provided that there is no Relativized Minimality effect from the intervention of an adverb (Top vs. Mod(if. 6. Dans deux jours, nous irons probablement à la plage. In two days we go-FUT probably to the beach ‘In two days we will probably go to the beach b. De ses propres mains, il a récemment réparé des Voitures. Of his own hands he has recently repaired DET-INDEF cars ‘With his own hands, he recently repaired (some) cars The different occurrences of complementizers ( que/that si/if, de, à, etc., see Rizzi [ 25, 30] are further arguments in favor of a rich split-CP structure. It is assumed that they occupy distinct positions in the left periphery (Force, Interrogative (Int) Finite (Fin. The fact that complementizer doubling exists in some languages (Irish English, Dutch, Picard, Northern Italian dialects, early Romance, spoken Spanish, European Portuguese; see McCloskey [ 31] Villa-García [ 32] and Paoli [ 33] for data and references) gives further support for the split CP. The higher complementizer occurs in Force and the lower one in Fin and a topic or a focus can be sandwiched between them. 5 Note that, akin to complementizers, determiner doubling and determiner spreading are attested in languages like Swedish, Romanian, Hebrew and Swiss/German dialects for the former and Greek for the latter. These facts will be discussed in the next section. As regards complementizer ‘spreading, Villa-Garcia reports the example of spoken Spanish in (7) with multiple topics [ 32. 7. Me dijeron que si llueve (que) se quedan aquí, y que si nieva (que) también. cl. said that if rains that cl. stay here and that if snows that too ‘They told me that they are going to stay here if it rains or snows. 2. The Noun Phrase (DP) By analogy with Rizzis split-CP analysis, some authors (Giusti [ 5, 6, 7] Laenzlinger [ 10, 11, 24] Aboh [ 27] Puskás and Ihsane [ 35] Ihsane [ 36] among others) propose a split-DP structure. What corresponds to Force is D deixis/specificity and, similarly, Fin is equated to D definitness/determination. Laenzlinger [ 10, 11] puts forth the structure in (8) which also contains dedicated positions for fronted constituents (topic, focus, etc. 8. Structure: QP. DP deixis > FocP > TopP/ModifP > DP det According to Laenzlinger [ 10, 11] and Cinque [ 37] the focus projection hosts emphatic fronted adjectives in Romance. This is illustrated in (9a) for French. The ungrammaticality of example (9b) shows that there is a single FocP available in the left periphery. 9. C est une SUPERBE nouvelle occasion. This is a superb- foc new occasion ‘This is a SUPERB new occasion. *C est une RECENTE SUPERBE voiture rouge italienne. This is a recent- foc superb- foc car red Italian ‘This is RECENT SUPERB red Italian car. French and other Romance languages also have a low FocP (see Samek-Lodovici [ 38. situated near NP, as illustrated by the following example (see Section 2 and Section 3. 2. 10. (Cest) une voiture rouge italienne SUPERBE. (This is) a car red Italian superb ‘(This) is a SUPERB red Italian car. The specifier of TopP in (8) is a position for topicalized arguments and adjuncts, while the specifier of ModifP (Modifier Projection) is a position for fronted non-focalized adjectives. The order among TopP, FocP and ModifP is difficult to establish given that the left periphery of the noun phrase is more constrained in terms of constituent fronting than that of the clause. In other words, the information structure of the noun phrase is poorer (less developed) than that of the clause. This restriction is arguably due to the fact that DPs are usually embedded within CP (except in elliptic constructions, e. g., responses to questions or non-verbal expressions, e. g., interjections) and hence have indirect access to discourse contexts. The paradigm below exemplifies movement of arguments to TopP or FocP in Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian, Russian and Greek. In (11a/a) the Dative complement is topicalized in front of the adjective of quality as the result of movement of the DP to the specifier of a left-peripheral TopP. This is also the case of the Genitive DP complement in (11b/b. The Hungarian example in (11c) is an instance of movement of the nouns Dative complement to a topic position in the DP-layer. The Russian example in (11d) as compared to (11d) shows that the Genitive complement is fronted for topicalization or focalization effects. In (11e/e) one can observe that the Genitive Possessor DP can move to the specifier of a left-peripheral focus projection (see originally Horroks and Stravou [ 39. Finally, the Romanian example in (11f) illustrates movement of the nouns Genitive complement (see (11f) to a topic fronted position as a marked option. 11. DP [ QualP velikodušana [ NP pomoć. PP u novcu. DP siromasnima. generous gift of money the-poor-DAT a′. DP [ TopP [ DP siromasnima. QualP velikodušana [ NP pomoć. PP u novcu] the-poor-DAT generous gift of money [ DP siromasnima. to-the-poor ‘a generous gift of money to the poor. Serbo-Croatian b. DP [ QualP lepa [ NP ćerka. DP+Gen Slavnoy matematičara. nice girl famous mathematician-GEN ‘the famous mathematicians nice girl. Serbo-Croatian b′. DP [ TopP [ DP+Gen slavnoy matematičara. QualP lepa [ NP ćerka. famous mathematician-GEN nice girl c. DP egy [ QualP nagylelkü [ NP pénz adomány. DP a szegenyeknek. PP a bank reszerol. a generous money gift the-poor-DAT the bank by c′. DP egy [ TopP [ DP a szegényeknek. TopP [ PP a bank részeéöl. QualP nagylelkü a the-poor-DAT the bank by generous [ NP pénz adomány. DP a szegenyeknek. PP a bank reszerol. money gift the-poor-DAT the bank by ‘a generous gift of money to the poor by the bank. Hungarian d. DP. QualP velikolepnaya [ NP mašina. FPGen [ DP moego papi. beautiful car my father-GEN ‘my fathers beautiful car. Russian d′. DP [ TopP/FocP [ DP moego papi +Gen. QualP velikolepnaya [ NP mashina. FPpp s my father-GEN beautiful car with otkryvaiusheisia kryshjei. open roof ‘my fathers beautiful car with an open roof. e. DP to [ AdjP oreo. DP to [ NP vivlio. DP+Gen tis Marias. the nice the book the Maria-GEN ‘Marias nice book. Greek [ 40] e′. DP [ FocP [ DP tis Marias. DP to [ AdjP oreo. DP to [ NP vivlio. the Maria-GEN the nice the book f. DP [ AdjP frumoasa. NP maşină. DP+Gen a lui Ion] beautiful car POSS the Ion-GEN ‘Ions beautiful car. Romanian f′. DP [ TopP [ DP+Gen a lui Ion. AdjP frumoasă. NP maşină. marked option) POSS the Ion-GEN beautiful car ‘Ions beautiful car. Romanian Note that movement (fronting) of arguments can target a Case position in the left periphery, as in the Saxon Genitive constructions in (12a, b) and the possessive construction in Hungarian in (12d) in which a Dative Case (vs. a Nominative Case in (12c) is assigned to the possessor. 12. DP [ GenP [ DP John]s [ DP [ NP. DP John] book. English b. DP [ GenP [ DP Johanns. DP [ NP [ DP Johann] Buch. 6 German c. DP (a. NomP [ DP Mari. QualP szép [ NP kalap-ja. Hungarian [ 41] the Mari-NOM nice hat ‘Maris nice hat. DP [ DatP [ DP Mari-nak. DP a [ QualP szép [ NP kalap-ja. Mari-DAT the nice hat ‘Maris nice hat. As already mentioned, adjective fronting can be triggered by focalization. This is the case not only in French (example (9a) and (13a. but also in Greek (example (13b. English also displays movement of adjectives to a left-peripheral focus position (example (13c, d) and to a quantifier position (example (13e, f. 13. DP une [ FocP SPLENDIDE [ AgrP voiture [ QualP splendide [ NP voiture. a splendid- foc car ‘a SPLENDID car. French b. DP to [ FocP KOKKINO [ DP to [ NP forema. QualP kokkino [ NP forema. the RED the dress ‘the RED dress. Greek c. These are BLACK small dogs, not white ones. d. DP [ FocP How clever [ DP a [ QualP how clever [NP boy. he is! e. This is [ QP too tough [ DP a [ QualP too tough [question. f. QP Such [ DP a [question. English As in Romance, adjectives can be fronted in Serbo-Croatian for prominence effects (see Guisti [ 5] for data and discussion. The adjective lepa ‘beautiful in (14) moves past the possessive element moya ‘my. 7 14. DP [ TopP/Modif lepa [ PossP moja [ QualP lepa [ NP devojčica. beautiful my girl ‘my beautiful girl. Serbo-Croatian In addition, there are other types of movement to the left periphery. They concern demonstratives, possessives (Genitive DPs, pronouns) and universal quantifiers in Italian, Spanish, Romanian and Greek. In the same vein as Brugè [ 42, 43] we propose that demonstratives occur in two different positions. They externally merge in the high portion of the midfield (unlike Brugè for whom it is in the low portion near NP) and possibly move to DP deixis, a noun phrase initial position. This is represented in (15. 8 15. The pairs of nominal constructions in (16) show that the demonstrative can occur in two positions and, when it is initial, it is in complementary distribution with the definite article. 16. DP el [ AgrP-NP libro viejo [ DemP este [de sintaxis. the book old this of syntax ‘this old book of syntax. Spanish a′. DPdeixis este [ AgrP-NP libro [ QualP viejo [de sintaxis. b. DP fete [ D le. DemP acestea [ QualP frumoase. girls -the these beautiful ‘these beautiful girls. Romanian b′. DPdeixis aceste [ AgrP-NP fete [ QualP frumoase. c. QP Sve [ AgrP-NP lepe zemlje [ DemP ove. all beautiful countries these ‘all these beautiful countries. Serbo-Croatian c′. QP Sve [ DPdeixis ove [ AgrP-NP lepe zemlje. all these beautiful countries The structures in (17a) and (17b) show that (i) the demonstrative can move from DemP to DP deixis; ii) case 1) the NP alone can move to an agreement position (AgrP NP related to D) which corresponds to example (16b. iii) case 2) the QualP including the prenominal adjective and the noun phrase raises to AgrP NP-D (example (16c) and finally (iv) case 3) the projection AgrP NP-Adj whose specifier is realized by the raised NP and which includes the adjective-related projection moves to AgrP NP-D (example 16a. 17. Greek displays even more complex DP-internal transformations involving a universal quantifier, a demonstrative and a definite determiner. 9 18. ólos aftós o kósmos Q < Dem < Det < N all this the people(sg) ‘all these people. *o aftós ólos kósmos *Det < Dem < Q < N the this all people c. ólos o kósmos aftós Q < Det < N < Dem all the people this d. o kósmos aftós ólos Det < N < Q < Dem the people all this The example (18a) is assigned the structural representation in (19. 19. The tree in (20) corresponding to example (18c) shows that the noun raises as an NP to DP det, while the determiner moves from D det to D deixis. As for the demonstrative, it remains in its base position. 20. The structure in (21) holds for the order in (18d. On the basis of the order in (20) there is further pied-piping movement of DP deixis to the specifier of QuantP, hence the final position of the universal quantifier. 21. One should notice that the reverse prenominal order cannot be derived from any types of movement on the basis of the base order in (20. This constraint is reminiscent of Cinques left–right asymmetry (see Section 3. As in the case of double/multiple complementizers, determiner reduplication provides further evidence in favor of the split-DP structure. Consider first the case of French superlatives, as in (22. We can observe that there is definite determiner doubling. 22. DP1 la [ SuperlP plus belle [ DP2 la fille [blonde. the most beautiful the girl blond ⇒. DP2 la fille [blonde. DP1 la [ SuperlP plus belle [ DP t. the girl blond the most beautiful ‘the most beautiful blond girl. Following recent proposals, the projections labeled SuperlP in (22) contains Corvers DegP [ 45] and can be identified as Alexiadous PredP [ 46] Kaynes Small Clause [ 47] or Cinques Reduced Relative Clause [ 37, 48. Given the derivation in (22) the lower DP2 moves to the specifier of DP1 past the superlative projection. Each D is realized lexically as a definite determiner. 10 Romanian also displays determiner doubling, but with two different determiners, namely –ul and ce ( l) in (23a–c. 23. mărul cel roşu apple-the (the) red ‘the red apple. studenţii cei interesaţi (de lingvistică) students-the (the) interested (in linguistics) ‘the students interested in linguistics. casa cea de piatră house-the (the) of stone ‘the house of stone. The determiner-like element ce ( l) can be prenominal in front of quantifier-like prenominal elements (as a last resort strategy according to Cornilescu [ 49. as in (24. 24. cele două legi the two laws The postnominal ce ( l) is associated with predicative elements, hence it is involved in a predicative structure (Cornilescu [ 49] and Cinque [ 48] see also Marchis and Alexiadou [ 50] for an analysis in terms of pseudo-polydefiniteness, Cornilescu and Nicolae [ 51] Sleeman and Perridon [ 52] and Sleeman et al. 53] for discussion and references therein. In Scandinavian (e. g., Norwegian, Swedish) a definite determiner (article) and a definite suffix co-occur only when a prenominal adjective is used. 25. den * nya) bok-en Swedish the new book-the ‘the new book. We assume that den stands in D deixis and –en in D determination. The noun plus the adjective (extended NP-movement) moves to the specifier of D determination. The question arises as to why determiner doubling is restricted to the context of prenominal adjective occurrence. The presence of adjectives is a trigger for multiple determiner occurrences in languages like Greek, Romanian and Scandinavian. However, Alexiadou shows that the multiple determiner is not a unified phenomenon crosslinguistically, and this was also the case of the multiple complementizer [ 46. Hebrew also displays some sort of determiner reduplication (see Alexiadou [ 46. as the example in (26) shows with the use of the prefix ha. 26. ha-rabanim ha-fanatim ha-‘elo the-rabbis the-fanatic the-these ‘these fanatic rabbis. Shlonsky argues that the case in (26) differs from determiner reduplication/spreading in that the reduplicated morpheme ha- is analyzed as an agreement marker rather than a true determiner [ 54. Determiner spreading in Greek is a much debated topic in Generative Grammar, especially within the framework of the DP-hypothesis (Alexiadou [ 46] Alexiadou and Wilder [ 55] Panagiotidis and Marinis [ 56. The split-DP analysis sheds new light on this phenomenon. Consider first some facts. Determiner spreading is only possible with the definite determiner, as shown by the contrast between (27) and (28. 27. to kókkino (to) vivlió the red the book ‘the red book. to vivlió (to) kókkino the Book the red 28. ená kókkino ( ená) vivlió (cf. dialects of German) a Red a book ‘a red book. ená vivlió ( ená) kókkino a book a red In addition, determiner spreading in (27) which is not obligatory, is possible with prenominal and postnominal predicative adjectives. 11 It is also interesting to point out that determiner spreading can be total or partial. This is illustrated by the examples in (29) taken from Alexiadou and Wilder [ 55] and Leu [ 57. 29. to megálo to kókkino to vivlió (total) the big the red the book b. to megálo to vivlió to kókkino (total) the big the book the red c. to megálo to kókkino vivlió the big the red book (partial) ‘the big red book. to megálo kókkino vivlió (partial) the big red book However, not all partial combinations are permitted given the ungrammaticality of (30. 30. *to megálo kókkino to vivlió the big red the book b. to vivlió to megálo kókkino the book the big red c. *to vivlió megálo to kókkino the book big the red d. *to megálo to vivlió kókkino the big the book red On the basis of these facts we propose that determiner spreading is a phenomenon of the left periphery involving D det -to-D deix movement (see (31) through the head of Modifier Projections whose specifier is occupied by the prenominal fronted adjective (see (32. Such movement may leave possible spelt-out copies of the raised determiner and the chain of copies cannot be broken, as shown by the ungrammaticality of (30) see Larson and Yamakido [ 58, 59] for a similar analysis in terms of spell out of D-copies. 12 31. 32. DP1 to [ ModifP megálo to [ ModifP kókkino to [ DP2 vivlió [ D to. b. DP1 to [ ModifP megálo ( to. ModifP kókkino ( to. DP2 vivlió [ D to. The analysis of the example (29b) is quite complex: the adjective of size moves to the left-peripheral ModifP, the noun to a topic position within DP and the adjective of color to a focus or Modif position. This is represented in (33. 33. DP1 to [ ModifP megálo to [ TopP vivlió to [ FocP/ModifP kókkino. DP2 [ D   to. A question arises from the impossibility of determiner spreading with indefinites in Greek contrary to some German/Swiss dialects and Northern Swedish (e. g., ein ganz ein guete Wi ‘a totally a good wine, en store n kar ‘a big a man, examples drawn from Alexiadou [ 46] pp. 96–97. Again, this contrast shows that “multiple determiner” is not a uniform phenomenon crosslinguistically. 13 So far, we have observed some structural and derivational parallelism in terms of split-C/split-D, Fin-to-Force/D det -to-D deix -movement and complementizer/determiner doubling and spreading. However, there are differences in the occurrence and inner configuration of discourse-related projections between the CP and DP layer, and the CP-domain is richer than the DP-domain in terms of information structure. 3. vP/ nP and Their Left Periphery vP and nP are the thematic domain of the clause and of the noun phrase, respectively. Arguments externally merge in this domain according to the following Universal Thematic Hierarchy 14 (Grimshaw for the clause [ 61] Jackendoff [ 62] Baker [ 63] and Universal Thematic Assignment hypothesis (Baker [ 64. 34. (POSS. AGENT. EXPER. BENEF > THEME/PATIENT > LOCATION Right above the thematic domain, there are focus and topic projections at the left-border of vP (Belletti [ 65, 66] Lahousse et al. 67] and possibly nP (Laenzlinger [ 24] Samek-Lodovici [ 38. As far as the clause is concerned, the right periphery ( Nachfeld) looks like (35. 35. …[ TopP Top 15 [ FocP Foc [ vP Agent [ VP Beneficiary V Theme/Patient. As for the noun, deverbal and agent-related nouns ( destruction, gift, picture, painting, etc. are particularly relevant to the hierarchy in (34) e. g., the bank Agent s gift of money Theme to the poor Beneficiary. As proposed by Laenzlinger [ 10, 11] the left periphery of NP is also the locus of a focus position and a predicative projection. In (36a) the right-hand focalized adjective occurs in the low focus position, and the predicative participial adjective in (36b) occupies the specifier of a low predicative projection (or reduced RC. The noun and the other adjectives/adjuncts are situated at Spell-Out in positions higher than FocP/PredP and the NP-domain (see Section 3. 2 for details. 36. une voiture italienne rouge [ FocP (vraiment resplendissante) SPLENDIDE [ NP] a car Italian red (really resplendent) SPENDID ‘a SPLENDID red Italian car (really resplendent. une voiture rouge De sport [ PredP toute équipée [ NP] a car red of sport all equipped ‘a red sport car all equipped. As for arguments, they leave the domain where they externally merge to reach dedicated positions where their case- and ϕ-features as well as their information structural features can be valued. This is expressed in the full nP/vP evacuation principle in (37. 16 37. Full nP/vP evacutation principle: “All arguments must leave the vP (and nP) domain in order to have their A-features (i. e., Case and ϕ) and I-features (i. e., informational features such as top, foc) checked/matched/assigned/valued in the overt syntax. ” [ 69] p. 19. 10] Laenzlinger [ 24] proposes that the information structural features are parasitic on Case/Agreement features in the Mittelfeld and are realized on dedicated heads/projections in the left and right periphery (Rizzi [ 25, 29] Belletti [ 65, 66. Within the same framework it is argued that verb raising is realized as (possibly extended) vP-movement and noun raising as (possibly extended) nP-movement. Since the arguments have evacuated the vP/nP domain, such movement is an instance of remnant movement. Recall that head movement is very local and limited to V to v, N to n, Fin to Force, and D det to D deix. The Midfield: The Order Among Complements and Adjuncts In Section 1 we have introduced Cinques [ 28] left–right asymmetry schematized as (38. 38. ok AB(C) H b. C)BA H c. ok H AB(C) d. ok H (C)BA We will test the validity of this asymmetry for portions of the Midfield of the clause, where the head H in (38) corresponds to the verb (V) and, similarly, for portions of the noun phrase, where H corresponds to the noun (N. On the basis of (38) Cinque accounts for Greenbergs Universal 20 involving the respective orderbof demonstratives, numerals and adjectives in pre- and postnominal position [ 70. Given the base order in (39) realized in English (no NP-movement) it is possible to have the same linear postnominal order in (40) realized in Kîîtharaka, a Bantu language. This order results from successive NP-movement past the demonstrative, the numeral and the adjective. In Gungbe (example (41) from Aboh [ 27] the postnominal order of Dem, Num and Adj is the mirror-image one of the prenominal order in English (39. This order is obtained after successive pied-piping roll-up movement (Cinque [ 70] p. 324. Leaving aside some other postnominal possible orders, the prenominal sequence in (42) is not attested crosslinguistically. In fact, without NP-movement, there is no way to derive such a prenominal reverse order from the base order in (39. 39. Dem > Num > Adj > N these five nice cars 40. N > Dem > Num > Adj (NP-movement) i-kombe bi-bi bi-tano bi-tune 8-cup 8-this 8-five 8-red ‘these five red cups. Kîîtharaka, Bantu 41. N > Adj > Num > Dem àgásá ɖàxó àtɔ̀n éhè lɔ́ lέ crabs big three dem det nb ‘these three big crabs. Gungbe 42. *Adj > Num > Dem > N Another illustration of Cinques left–right asymmetry within the noun phrase is adjective ordering in pre- and postnominal contexts. The sequence of adjectives in Germanic illustrated in (43) for English is considered the basic one. The postnominal order of adjectives in (44) is linearly the same as in the prenominal order in (43. This order is attested in Romance and Gaelic and results from NP-movement past the adjectives. The examples of French (Romance) and Hebrew in (45) which contain adjectives of different types, display the reverse order of postnominal adjectives as compared to the basic prenominal order in (43. Such an order results from pied-piping roll-up movement (extended NP-movement, see Laenzlinger [ 11] Shlonsky [ 54] for details. As in the case of (42) the reverse order of prenominal adjectives with respect to the basic order in (43) is not possible unless the first adjective is focalized (‘These are black small dogs, but not white ones. In the absence of NP-movement, this order cannot be derived. The case of adjective focalization results from movement of the adjective to a left-peripheral focus position (see Section 2. 2. 43. Adj1 > Adj2 > N Germanic red American car 44. N > Adj1 > Adj2 a. un vase ovale chinois a vase oval Chinese ‘an oval Chinese vase. Romance (French) b. cupán mór cruinn cup large green ‘a large green cup. Irish (see also Welsh) 45. N > Adj2 > Adj1 a. une voiture américaine rouge/splendide a car American red/splendid French ‘a splendid red American car. para švecarit xuma cow Swiss brown ‘a Swiss brown cow. Hebrew 46. *Adj2 > Adj1 > N unless Adj2 is focalized (These are BLACK small dogs, not white ones. 17 Let us now consider whether the left–right asymmetry in (38) holds for the distribution of complements and adjuncts around the verb within the clause ( Section 3. 1) and the noun within the noun phrase ( Section 3. The Clause Cinque proposes the universal hierarchy of adverbs in (47. 22. 47. Frankly/Franchement Mood speech act. unfortunately/malheureusement Mood evaluative. apparently/apparemment Mood evidential. probably/probablement Mod epistemic. once/autrefois T past. then/ensuite T future. maybe/peut-être Mod (ir)realisis. necessarily/nécessairement Mod necessity. possibly Mod possibility. deliberately/intentionnellement Mod volitional. inevitably/inévitablement Mod obligation. cleverly/intelligemment Mod ability/permission. usually/habituellement Asp habitual. again/de nouveau Asp repetitive. often/souvent Asp frequentative. quickly/rapidement Asp celerative. already/déjà T anterior. no longer/plus Asp perfect. still/encore Asp continuative. always/toujours Asp perfect. just/juste Asp retrospective. soon/bientôt Asp proximative. briefly/brièvement Asp durative. typically/typiquement Asp generic/progressive. almost/presque Asp prospective. completely/complètement Asp SgCompletive(I. all/tout Asp PlCompl. well/bien Voice. fast/vite Asp celerative(II. completely/complètement Asp SgCompletive(II. again/de nouveau Asp repetitive(II. often/souvent Asp frequentative. Cinque explicitly points out that there should be DP/PP-related positions among (some classes) of adverbs for verbs complements [ 22. Along the same lines, Laenzlinger [ 24, 71, 72] argues in a crosslinguistic study that the verb and its arguments can float among adverbs depending on Case and Information Structure conditions. For instance, in French the participial verb and its direct complement can occur before or after a temporal adverb and a manner adverb. This is illustrated in (48. 18 48. Jean a probablement fini dernièrement (fini) son travail soigneusement (fini) son travail) Jean has probably achieved recently his work carefully In addition, there is a hierarchy of Case- and P-related positions in the Mittelfeld for DP/PP-complements and DP/PP-adjuncts (Cinque [ 28] Kayne [ 73] and Krapova and Cinque [ 74. Recall that all arguments left their thematic domain to reach dedicated position in the Mittelfeld. As for adjuncts, they externally merge in the midfield according to the hierarchy proposed by Krapova and Cinque [ 74, 75] and expressed in Cinque [ 23] as (49. 49. DP time > DP location > … > DP instrument >… > DP manner > … > DP agent > DP goal > DP theme > V (Cinque [ 23] p. 10) In order to know whether there is a hierarchy of Case and P-related positions in the midfield, we have to take into consideration Case-marking languages with V-final configurations like German or Japanese (Soare [ 34] Laenzlinger [ 24, 71. The German sentences in (50a–c) which display the neutral order of constituents, show that the manner PP-adjunct most naturally precedes the verbs complements and the Dative complement precedes the Accusative complement which gives rise to the midfield neutral preverbal order in (51) see Laenzlinger [ 71] and Pittner [ 76. 50. Hans hat aus Großzügigkeit seinem Bruder Geld geschickt. Hans has by generosity his-DAT brother money sent ‘Hans sent money to his brother with much generosity b. Die Bank hat kürzlich aus Großzügigkeit den Armen Geld gegeben. The Bank has recently by generosity the-DAT poor money given ‘The bank recently gave money to the poor with much generosity c. Hans hat mit viel Spaß seinem Bruder ein/dieses Geschenk gesendet. Hans has with much pleasure his-DAT brother a/this gift sent ‘Hans sent a/this gift to his brother with much pleasure Laenzlinger [ 71] 51. [DP/PP adjunct < DP Dat < DP Acc < V] In V-initial contexts (SVO) where adjuncts and complements follow the verb, as in French and English, the neutral order of constituents is the mirror-image of the order in (50/51) see Cinque [ 77] Schweikert [ 78] Tescari Neto [ 79] for relevant discussion. 19 This is illustrated in (52) and represented in (53. 52. La banque a récemment donné de largent aux pauvres avec une grande générosité. b. The bank recently gave some money to the poor with great generosity. 53. [V < DP Acc < DP Dat < PP adjunct] 20 The reverse order in (52) is obtained after successive roll-up derivation giving rise to “snowballing” effects. This is represented in (54) in a simplified way. After the Acc- and Dat-arguments have evacuated vP and reached their Case-related position, the verb raises cyclically, first as vP past the Acc-argument, then as the extended projection containing the verb and its Acc-object past the Dat-object and finally as the extended projection containing the verb and two object arguments past the PP-adjunct position which merges in a position higher than the objects, hence the “snowballing” effect. 54. As such, this is a (partial) illustration of Cinques [ 23, 28] left–right asymmetry in natural language applied to the Mittelfeld s neutral order (Adjunct OV vs. VO Adjunct. To summarize, the possible types of movement that apply to the clausal internal structure are given in (55. 55. Once the arguments evacuated from vP, the verb alone can undergo remnant (possibly extended) vP-movement. As further steps, the verb and its extended projection can undergo pied-piping movement of two types: whose-picture (Spec-head, i. e. V + Adv] or picture of whom (Head-Compl, i. e. Adv + V. If pied-piping movement is successive, roll-up effects are obtained (snowballing. The Noun Phrase As in the case of adverbs within the clause, there is a hierarchy of adjectives within the noun phrase. Following Cinque [ 4] Laenzlinger [ 10, 11, 24] and Scott [ 80] the simplified hierarchy can be established in (56) for event-denoting nouns and (57) for object-denoting nouns Laenzlinger [ 11] p. 650. 56. Adj speaker-oriented > Adj subject-oriented > Adj manner > Adj thematic ‘the probable clumsy immediate American reaction to the offense 57. Adj quantification > Adj quality > Adj size > Adj shape >Adj color > Adj nationality ‘numerous wonderful big American cars ‘various round black Egyptian masks Cinque provides a more fine-grained hierarchy with dual positions for direct/indirect adjectival modifiers [ 37] see also Sproat and Shih [ 81, 82] Larson [ 83] and the possible position for the noun in Germanic and Romance. See (58) and Table 1. 58. English: AP in a reduced RC > direct modification AP > N > AP in a reduced RC b. Italian: direct modification AP > N > direct modification AP > AP in a reduced RC This paper is not only concerned with adjective ordering and positioning, but also with the respective order of complements and adjuncts before and after the noun. 21 The order of DP/PP-complements/arguments and adjuncts is tested with deverbal nouns since they overtly express a thematic and Case-hierarchy. We first consider N-final languages like Japanese and Tatar which display neutral order of prenominal elements, as illustrated in (59) and represented in (60. 59. Japanese ( Tatar, a head-final Turkic language) a. kooseinoo bakudan-de-no Amerikajin niyoru machi-no yôshanai hakai high-tech weapon-with-GEN American by city-GEN brutal destruction ‘the destruction of the city by the Americans with high-tech weapons b. ginkô niyoru mazushii hito e no okane-no kandaina kifu bank by poor people to-DAT money-GEN generous gift ‘a generous gift of money to the poor by the bank 60. PP adjunct > PP argument > DP Dative > DP Genitive > Adjectives > N Japanese and Tatar (unmarked/neutral order) The nominal constructions in French and English given in (61a–d) show that the neutral linear order of postnominal elements is the mirror-image of the prenominal order in (60) as represented in (62. 61. the brutal destruction of the city by the enemy with heavy artillery b. la destruction brutale de la ville par lennemi avec de la grosse artillerie c. a recent gift of money to the poor by the bank with great generosity d. le don récent dargent aux pauvres par la banque avec/dune grande générosité 62. of/de (GEN. to/à (DAT. by/par (OBL. PP Adjunct Given the base order in (60) the nominal structure in (62) contains a hierarchy of PP-related projections 22 in the Mittelfeld between the DP-border and the adjective-related projections. The unmarked sequences of PPs in (61a–d) are derived from successive roll-up movement, as schematized in (63. More precisely, as a first step the arguments leave the nP-domain and move to their dedicated argumental PP-related position (FP by > FP to > FP of. The adjective-related projection which contains the adjective and the noun undergoes successive roll-up movement through PP-related projections and reaches a position higher than that of the PP-adjunct. 63. So far, the higher part of the French Mittelfeld has been made of the following sequence of PPs: recursive) de- phrase < à- phrase < par -phrase. Such an order can be refined if we take the co-occurrence of de- PPs into consideration, as exemplified in (64) see Laenzlinger [ 10] for a thematic hierarchy of PP-positions in the French noun phrase. 23 64. le tableau dAristote de ce collectionneur par Rembrandt (dune grande beauté) the painting of Aristote of this collector by Rembrandt (of great beauty) ‘This collectors painting of Aristote by Rembrandt (of great beauty. le tableau de Rembrandt du Louvre (dune grande beauté) the painting of Rembrandt from the Louvre (of great beauty) ‘Rembrandts painting from the Louvre (of great beauty. lordre de départ du général à ses troupes (par le général) avec fermeté the order of departure of the general to his troops (by the general) with strictness d. la promesse de bonté de Jean à lEglise (avec sincérité) the promise of kindness of Jean to the Church (with sincerity) ‘Jeans promise of kindness to the Church (with sincerity. lenvoi dune lettre à Marie de Paris par Jean (avec amour) the sending of a letter to Marie from Paris by Jean (with love) The unmarked orders of postnominal complements realized in these examples show that co-occurring de -PPs are (preferably) used according to the linear series of PPs in (65. 65. D < N < de- Theme < de- Agent < à- Goal < de- Source < par- Agent < Adjunct This order is derived from successive roll-up movement steps that apply to the midfield structure in (66) which gives rise to the mirror-image order (see also 63 above for some details in terms of derivation. 66. DP > FP pp [ADJUNCT. FP par [AGENT. FP de [SOURCE. FP à [GOAL. FP de [AGENT. FP de [THEME. …n / NP (see Laenzlinger [ 24, 71] Scrambling/reordering of postnominal elements is always possible as a marked option. These alternative orders involve subtle information structural effects, as for instance in French: 67. lenvoi par Jean dune lettre à Marie de Paris avec amour the sending by John of a letter to Mary from Paris with love b. lenvoi à Marie dune lettre par Jean avec amour the sending to Mary of a letter by John with love This is a case of DP-internal scrambling, probably an instance of single XP-movement and is similar to CP/TP-internal scrambling of arguments/complements (German, Japanese, French. So far, the possible types of movement within the noun phrase are summarized as (68. 68. The noun alone can undergo remnant (possibly extended) nP/NP-movement. Then, the noun and its extended projection can undergo pied-piping movement of two types: whose-picture (Spec-head, i. e., N + Adj) or picture of whom (Head-Compl, i. e., Adj + N. Thus, we can observe that both the clause and the noun phrase display the same types of movement (compare (68) with (55. although their application is not strictly parallel due to structural differences, especially in the midfield and the left periphery. 4. Conclusions In this paper, we have offered a cartographic study of the left periphery, the midfield and, to a lesser extent, the Nachfeld (thematic domain and its left periphery) of both the clause and the noun phrase in several languages of different families (Romance, Germanic, Slavic, Greek, etc. We have seen that Cinques left–right asymmetry holds for different parts of the clausal and nominal structure, especially concerning the order of adjuncts and arguments in the midfield, on the basis of a comparison between head-final and head-initial configurations. The so-called parallelism between the clause and the noun concerns (i) the division of both the clausal and nominal structures into three parallel domains and (ii) the possible types of movement (short head-movement, single XP-movement, remnant movement and pied-piping movement. However, there are differences in the conditions of application on some of these movement types between the clause and the noun phrase. More precisely, the derivational steps of vP and nP movement proceed differently due to Case and agreement properties. This is also the case for possible derivations involving complements/arguments within the clause and the noun phrase. In addition, we have observed that the left periphery as well as the midfield of the clause and the noun phrase show significant differences (i. e., non-parallelism) in their internal organization involving the respective distribution of adverbs/adjectives, 24 DP/PP-arguments and DP/PP-adjuncts. More precisely, we have seen that the left periphery is richer, or more developed, in terms of structures and discourse properties in the clause than in the noun phrase. This is attributed to the fact that the noun phrase has a less direct access to the discourse context being usually embedded within the clause. Acknowledgments I would like to thank the editors of the present issue of Languages and the four anonymous reviewers for their relevant comments and suggestions concerning the form and content of the paper. Many thanks go to my colleagues for their empirical and theoretical support: Goljian Kacheava, Eric Haeberli, Genoveva Puskas, Gabriela Soare, Luigi Rizzi, Ur Shlonsky, Giuliano Bocci, and Richard Zimmerman. Conflicts of Interest The author declares no conflict of interest. References Lees, R. B. 1960. The Grammar of English Nominalizations. Bloomington, IN, USA: Indiana University Press. Google Scholar] Chomsky, N. 1970. Remarks on Nominalization. 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Google Scholar] 1 See also work in the framework of Distributed Morphology (Marantz [ 13] Alexiadou [ 14] where the parallelism between clauses and derived nominals is also striking (the category of the root is defined syntactically, i. e., syntax feeds the lexicon, see also Borers [ 15] exo-squeletal lexical approach. 2 In this context it is important to make a distinction between event-denoting nouns (deverbal/derived nominals) and object-denoting nouns as well as between state-denoting and event-denoting verbs. 3 A cleft construction is used for arguments as shown by the contrast between (ia) and (ib. i. *Ce LIVRE-ci jai choisi, pas celui-là. Cest ce LIVRE-ci que jai choisi, pas celui-là. ‘It is this book that I chose, not that one 4 The celerative adverb lentement ‘slowly externally merges in a position lower than the modal projection hosting the adverb probably. 5 A similar analysis can be adopted for subjunctive clauses in languages like Greek and Romanian where a subjunctive marker co-occurs with the higher complementizer. The latter merges in Force, while the former merges in Fin which is a mood-related head (see Soare [ 34] for Romanian. 6 Note that Saxon Genitive is restricted to [ animate] nouns in German, as compared to English. ii. meines Vaters Wagen /my fathers car iii. meiner Mutter Wagen /my mothers car iv. *der Stadt Zerstörung / ok the citys destruction 7 As regards DP/PP-adjuncts, their fronting to the left periphery is very restricted in the languages studied in this paper. A case in point is Russian where a few PP-adjuncts can move to the DP-domain as a contrastive (focus) effect. This is illustrated in (v) and (vi) below. v. Ja vsegda chitala interesnye knigi v tverdom pereplete. I always read interesting books with hard cover b. A ja vsegda chitala v mjagkom pereplete interesnye knigi. And I always read with soft cover interesting books vi. J kupila krasnoe platje s korotkimi rukavami. I bought red dress with short sleeves b. A ja kupila s dlinnymi rukavami krasnoe platje. And I bought with long sleeves red dress 8 See also Julien [ 44] for a similar proposition, but also Bernstein [ 12] who argues against Brugès analysis. 9 Note that the prenominal raised demonstrative is compatible with a definite determiner in Greek contrary to Spanish and Romanian 10 There are alternative analyses in terms of N(P) ellipsis or postnominal predication (see Alexiadou [ 46] pp. 68ff) and references cited therein. 11 Determiner Spreading is not possible with non-predicative adjectives such as alleged, Italian and with adjectives selecting a complement like proud of his son N (see Alexiadou and Wilder [ 54] Cinque [ 37, 48] Laenzlinger [ 24] and Alexiadou [ 46. 12 There are alternative proposals in the literature, especially in terms of Reduced Relative Clause or Small Clause (Alexiadou and Wilder [ 55] on the basis of Kayne [ 47] Cinque [ 37, 48] see Alexiadou [ 46] for a review. 13 As suggested by an anonymous reviewer, this difference may be due to the fact that indefinites are quantifiers, not articles, in Greek (see Laenzlinger [ 24] p. 178) for a similar proposal. 14 See the references cited in Alexiadou et al. 60] pp. 503ff) for the thematic hierarchy within the noun phrase. This analysis in terms of NP-internal thematic hierarchy has been challenged by Grimshaw [ 61] among others. 15 TopP is higher than FocP, as shown by the following contrast: vii. Chi ha letto questo libro? Ha [ TopP letto questo libro [ FocP Gianni [ vP letto]questo libro. Who (has) read this book (Has) read this book Gianni vs. *Ha letto [ FocP Gianni [ TopP questo libro [ vP letto questo libro. 64] 16 This principle is based on the fact that nP and vP are phases (see Svenonius [ 68] Cornilescu and Nicolae [ 51] and their arguments must move to an edge position to be accessible for Agree (to be probed. This position is externally to nP and vP given Kaynes Linear Corresponding Axiom [ 47] nP and vP cannot have more than one specifier. 17 However, there are limits to such mirror-ordering of adjectives under focalization, as shown by the contrast between (i) and (ii. viii. beautiful small black dogs ix. *BLACK beautiful small dogs/ BLACK small beautiful dogs. 18 This also holds in other Romance languages (e. g., Italian) and more restrictively in English (as pointed out by an anonymous reviewer. See Laenzlinger [ 24] for a large comparative study of adverb intervention. 19 This is similar for the noun phrase (Laenzlinger [ 24] and see also Section 3. 2. x. le récent don dargent aux pauvres (par la banque) avec/dune grande générosité b. the recent gift of money to the poor (by the bank) with great generosity 20 In German V2 contexts, as in the SVO configuration in (ia-b) the reverse postverbal order is also possible, although this word order is rather marked (Accusative preceding Dative and the PP-adjunct occurring in sentence-final position. xi. Hans schickte das Geld seinem Bruder aus Großzügigkeit. Hans sent the money his-DAT brother by generosity ‘Hans sent the money to his brother with much generosity. Die Bank gab das Geld den Armen aus Großzügigkeit. The bank gave the money the-DAT poor by generosity (more marked) ‘The bank gave money to the poor with much generosity. In addition, the order in (iia) is also marked. The less marked order is the one given in (iib) as in V-final clauses. xii. Die Bank gab den Armen das Geld aus Großzügigkeit. (marked) b. Die Bank gab aus Großzügigkeit den Armen das Geld. (less marked) 21 Note, however, that the hierarchy of adjectives shows differences with respect to the hierarchy of adverbs, especially in the case object-denoting nouns. Despite the fact that adjectives and adverbs share this common property of merging as unique ordered specifiers, adjectives can have dual merged positions contrary to adverbs (except for few of them, i. e., often and completely. 22 The categories K and P (Kayne [ 73] are simplified here as FP pp for ease of representation. This more simplified notation will be used in the remaining part of the present paper. 23 Some of these examples are borrowed from Milner [ 84] Ruwet [ 85] and Cinque [ 86] see also Alexiadou et al. 60] p. 583. and are slightly modified. 24 Adverbs and adjectives as modifiers merge as unique specifiers, but they are not organized in the same way hierarchically (Cinque [ 22] Cinque [ 37] except in the case of derived/deverbal nominals. Table 1. APs in reduced RCs vs. APs in direct modification. APs in Reduced RCs (Only Predicative) APs in Direct Modification (Only Non-Predicative) intersective ( bald, blonde. adverbial ( former, total, mere. ‘for a N subsective ( tall, big, …) modal ( possible, alleged. ‘as a N subsective (skillful, beautiful. privative ( false, fake. 2017 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

As a lifelong "Singin' in the Rain" fan, I was really quite disappointed by "An American in Paris" the first time I saw it. After seeing it a few more times, I certainly love the Gershwin score and the ballet at the end, but those are the main redeeming features. Aside from the fact that it's way too long (114 minutes) it has a cast of forgettable characters and a creaky plot that was sprouting white hair even by 1951's standards. It's hard to believe that this won the Best Picture Academy Award over "Streetcar Named Desire" and "The African Queen.
There isn't much to say about the plot: Struggling artist Jerry Mulligan (Gene Kelly) is sponsored by love and leave 'em Milo Roberts (Nina Foch. However, Jerry is in love with nubile young Parisian Lise (Leslie Caron) who's engaged to Jerry's friend Henri (Georges Guetary. Then there's cranky, aging "child prodigy" Adam (Oscar Levant) who acts as the story's. actually, I don't know why he's there.
"An American in Paris" isn't terrible, per se, it's just that it plays the notes of a movie musical, but not the music. Even when you don't compare it to "Singin' in the Rain" it just feels like there's something lacking. It has plenty going for it and you desperately want to love it, but it just falls short. Plus, I really found Jerry insufferable. He's just an opportunistic lecher who takes advantage of Milo (who he obviously dislikes) and relentlessly chases the much younger Lise (who initially dislikes him. Kelly seemed to enjoy playing decidedly unpleasant characters, but here he seems to play him a bit too well. Nina Foch does her best with a thankless part. Reserved and coldly beautiful (how did Hitchcock miss this woman. she does a good job playing the icy older woman (Kelly was older by nearly a decade, but suspend your disbelief.
Now, about Leslie Caron: she's received heaps of criticism for her extremely unsophisticated debut performance. I say give the poor girl a break. Only 19 when handpicked by Gene Kelly, Caron was a ballerina for a French company and not even interested in acting (she's said she only took the part to satisfy her mother. Also, the part of Lise is so insipid and underwritten, Barbara Stanwyck or Bette Davis couldn't make it more interesting, much less a young novice. She was a splendid dancer, and Lise's introduction scenes to the song "Embraceable You" are among the film's most charming sequences. Minnelli should have fired the make-up artist for shellacking Caron's lips with shiny red lipstick and accentuating her overbite. Caron did have lovely features such as her beautiful eyes and flawless complexion, but the make-up artist doesn't highlight them at all. Caron eventually blossomed into a fine actress in later years (check her out in "Lili. Gigi" and "The L-Shaped Room" if you don't believe me.
The musical numbers really save the film from becoming too tepid. I don't care how you feel about the Jerry/Lise romance: Love is Here to Stay" is still one of the most romantic scenes ever caught on film. And that ballet at the end! Kelly at least deserved that special Oscar for conceiving and choreographing this epic number that pays tribute to French painters and it demonstrates how tirelessly creative Gene Kelly was.
For lovely musical numbers only, check out "An American in Paris. For the whole bag of tricks (songs, plots, great characters. Singin' in the Rain" can't be beat.

Pari no. Pages: 224 Size: 418. 88 Kb Read Download The Successful Agent: Practical Hints for the Seller of Life Insurance by William Alexander This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the orig artifact, and remains as true to the orig work as possible. Therefore, you will... Pages: 222 Size: 415. 14 Kb Pages: 216 Size: 403. 92 Kb Pages: 220 Size: 411. 4 Kb Pages: 208 Size: 388. 96 Kb Pages: 214 Size: 400. 18 Kb Pages: 46 Size: 86. 02 Kb Pages: 230 Size: 430. 1 Kb Pages: 288 Size: 538. 56 Kb Pages: Maggie Now by Betty Smith. out of the experiences of her own life in this rediscovered classic. In Brooklyn's unforgiving. desirous men who dominate her life. Confronted by her quarrelsome Irish immigrant... 春を抱いていた 7 by Youka Nitta. adult, comedy, drama, romance, slice of life, smut, yaoi Summary: A lighthearted romantic... Howards End by E. M. Forster. s smug English family to ruin her life. Howards End is considered by some to be Forster... Pages: 352 Size: 658. 24 Kb Cathedral by Raymond Carver. danger, excitement, mystery and possibility of life. Carver is a writer of astonishing compassion and... Truman by David McCullough. s beloved and distinguished life of Harry S. Truman is one of the greatest... Pages: 1120 Size: 2094. 4 Kb Pages: 432 Size: 807. 84 Kb Bertrand Russell: A Life by Caroline Moorehead The definitive biography of the controversial Nobel Prize-winning philosopher, mathematician, anti-war activist, and "free love" advocate. Moorehead makes use of unpublished letters and papers and many new interviews to fashion an incisive biography of... Pages: 608 Size: 1136. 96 Kb Download.

Pari no amerikaninsesi.


Japanese Phrase Lesson 1: Self Introduction – Review Notes Today we learned how to introduce ourselves in Japanese! To do this, we used three basic phrases. In addition to the phrases we already taught you, we will tell you some additional phrases that you can use to introduce yourself in Japanese. ………………………………………………………………………………... Number 1: ★  Hajimemashite is an expression which roughly translates to, “It is the first time (meeting you. ” However, to make it closer to the equivalent English expression, it is more often translated as “Nice to meet you. ” ★   Hajimemashite is usually the first step to introducing yourself in Japanese. Number 2: ★  In todays video we learned how to use this phrase to tell someone our name. Example: If your name is Sara, you can say: わたしは サラ です. Watashi wa Sara desu. “I am Sara. ” You can also leave out “Watashi wa” and just say “Sara desu. ” Japanese often leave out the topic of the sentence when it is obvious to both people. ★ This sentence form can also be used to tell someone anything about you. Just like you use “I am_ ” for many kinds of sentences in English, you can use this sentence to say many different things in Japanese. Example 1: You can use this sentence form to tell your nationality わたしは アメリカじん です. Watashi wa Amerikajin desu. “I am American. ” Example 2: You can use this sentence form to tell your age わたしは 15さい です. Watashi wa juugosai desu. “I am 15 years old. ” ★   Another phrase you can use to tell someone your name is: わたしのなまえは_____です. Watashi no namae wa. desu. “My name is. ” If your name is Sara, you can say…. わたしのなまえは サラ です. Watashi no namae wa Sara desu. “My name is Sara. ” ★   Some other ways to tell your name include: わたしは_____といいます. Watashi wa. to iimasu. わたしは_____ともうします. Watashi wa. to mōshimasu. Number 3: ★  Although we dont say this in English, this is a very common and important phrase to remember in Japanese. ★  This is usually the last phrase that Japanese people use when they introduce themselves. ★  A more casual version of yoroshiku onegaishimasu is yoroshiku. ………………………………………………………………………………... Conclusion: There are a lot of different phrases that you can use to introduce yourself in Japanese, but you dont have to remember them all. If you can remember the three phrases that we learned in todays video, then you can introduce yourself in Japanese! Self Introduction – Madoka Magica はじめまして. あけみほむらです. よろしくおねがいします. Do you want a Japanese tutor? Take Japanese Skype Lessons with Professional Japanese Teachers on! ………………………………………………………………………………...

Edit Release Dates UK 26 August 1951 (London) premiere) USA 26 September 1951 (limited) 11 November 1951 Argentina 13 December 1951 24 December 1951 Denmark 4 February 1952 Sweden 25 February 1952 Uruguay 3 April 1952 Australia 4 April 1952 France May 1952 (Cannes Film Festival) Finland 1 May 1952 Japan 2 May 1952 Netherlands 30 July 1952 Italy 6 September 1952 Portugal 3 October 1952 Philippines 7 October 1952 (Davao) Spain 23 October 1952 (Madrid) 10 November 1952 (Barcelona) premiere) West Germany 24 December 1952 Austria January 1953 Hong Kong 22 January 1953 Turkey November 1953 Hungary 17 June 1965 29 May 1968 (re-release) 26 November 1977 (re-release) 6 December 1977 (re-release) 7 May 1983 (TV premiere) 23 June 1984 (re-release) East Germany 23 March 1985 (TV premiere) 1 August 1990 Greece 5 March 2003 (DVD premiere) 23 December 2009 (re-release) 28 October 2011 (re-release) 26 December 2012 (re-release) 24 December 2014 (re-release) restored version) 5 April 2017 (re-release) restored version) Also Known As (AKA) original title) An American in Paris Un americano en París Argentina (alternative title) Sinfonía en París Ein Amerikaner in Paris Belgium (Flemish title) Een amerikaan te Parijs Belgium (French title) Un Américain à Paris Brazil Sinfonia de Paris Bulgaria (Bulgarian title) Canada (French title) Un américain à Paris Croatia Amerikanac u Parizu En amerikaner i Paris Finland (TV title) Amerikkalainen Pariisissa Pariisin lumoissa Finland (video box title) Germany Greece (transliterated title) Enas amerikanos sto Parisi Ενας Αμερικανός στο Παρίσι Egy amerikai Párizsban Un americano a Parigi Pari no Amerikajin Japan (Japanese title) 巴里のアメリカ人 Norway Poland Amerykanin w Paryżu Um Americano em Paris Slovenia Amerikanec v Parizu Soviet Union (Russian title) Spain (Catalan title) Un americà a París Sweden (TV title) En amerikan i Paris Taiwan 花都舞影 Turkey (Turkish title) Paris'te bir Amerikalı Ukraine і Sinfonía de París Venezuela Yugoslavia (Croatian title) Amerikanac u Parizu.



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